A pilot-scale study of cryolite precipitation from high fluoride-containing wastewater in a reaction-separation integrated reactor.
ABSTRACT Fluoride removal by traditional precipitation generates huge amounts of a water-rich sludge with low quality, which has no commercial or industrial value. The present study evaluated the feasibility of recovering fluoride as low water content cryolite from industrial fluoride-containing wastewater. A novel pilot-scale reaction-separation integrated reactor was designed. The results showed that the seed retention time in the reactor was prolonged to strengthen the induced crystallization process. The particle size of cryolite increased with increasing seed retention time, which decreased the water content. The recovery rate of cryolite was above 75% under an influent fluoride concentration of 3500 mg/L, a reaction temperature of 500C, and an influent flow of 40 L/hr. The cryolite products that precipitated from the reactor were small in volume, large in particle size, low in water content, high in crystal purity, and recyclable.
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ABSTRACT: Excessive fluoride concentrations have been reported in groundwaters of more than 20 developed and developing countries including India where 19 states are facing acute fluorosis problems. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. In this paper, a broad overview of the available technologies for fluoride removal and advantages and limitations of each one have been presented based on literature survey and the experiments conducted in the laboratory with several processes. It has been concluded that the selection of treatment process should be site specific as per local needs and prevailing conditions as each technology has some limitations and no one process can serve the purpose in diverse conditions.Journal of Hazardous Materials 10/2006; 137(1):456-63. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to contribute to better resource efficiency and industrial waste management leading to a sustainable production and consumption pattern new processes must be developed, which should be operated in such a way that waste production is reduced or avoided. Fluoride removal by precipitation generates huge amounts of a water rich sludge. Calcium fluoride is not recovered from the waste streams and it is not recycled due to the high water content and the low quality of the sludge. Crystallization process in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) appears as an alternative technology to the conventional chemical precipitation process. In the crystallization process in a FBR silica sand is usually used as seed material, however silica is a deleterious impurity because it causes losses in the yield of HF and its content should be less than 1%. In this paper, granular calcite has been used as seed material in order to obtain synthetic calcium fluoride. According to the composition (CaF(2)>97%, SiO(2)<1%), the synthetic calcium fluoride from the crystallization process in a FBR is able to be recycled as raw material for the manufacture of hydrofluoric acid leading to a reduction of raw materials consumption. The crystallization process in a FBR to remove fluoride from industrial wastewaters contributes to an environmental friendly production, because it allows to reduce the waste production as well as to increase the recovery of materials.Water Research 03/2007; 41(4):810-8. · 5.32 Impact Factor