Determination of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Exposure by Distance From a Smoking Source.
ABSTRACT An increasing number of cities and countries have implemented outdoor smoking restrictions at building entrances. The purpose of this study was to determine outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure as a function of distance from a smoking source.
Outdoor concentrations of ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were measured at 4 different distances (1, 3, 6, and 9 m) from a simulated smoking source. Wind speed and direction were measured using a wind meter. In total, 98 experiments were conducted in outdoor rooftop. The experiments were conducted in 5 days with average wind speed of 0.8±0.6 m/s. One smoking experiment consisted of 13min (5 nonsmoking min, 3 smoking min, and 5 more nonsmoking min). The difference between mean PM2.5 concentrations during smoking and nonsmoking conditions was determined as the OTS exposure.
The OTS levels were 72.7, 11.3, 4.1, and 2.6 µg/m(3) at 1, 3, 6, and 9 m, respectively. Although the OTS levels decreased with increasing distance from the smoking source, the OTS levels were significantly higher than zero at all distances. The downwind OTS levels were significantly higher than upwind levels. The OTS levels were negatively associated with wind speed.
The outdoor PM2.5 levels were significantly higher with smoking than without smoking. Because the OTS was detectable even at 9 m with only one cigarette smoking, the minimum distance from a smoking source to prevent OTS exposure should be at least 9 m.
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ABSTRACT: Aim To examine levels of fine particulates of secondhand smoke (SHS) in outdoor dining/smoking areas and the adjacent indoor dining areas of restaurants to assess possible drift via open windows/doors. Method We measured fine particulates (PM 2.5 mcg/m 3) with real-time aerosol monitors as a marker of SHS inside where smoking is banned and outside dining areas (which permit smoking) of eight restaurants in Wellington. We also collected related background data (e.g. number of smokers, time windows/doors were open, etc.). Results Highest overall mean PM 2.5 levels were observed in the outdoor dining areas (38 µg/m 3), followed by the adjacent indoor areas (34 mcg/m 3), the outdoor ambient air (22 mcg/m 3) and the indoor areas at the back of the restaurant (21 mcg/m 3). We found significantly higher PM 2.5 levels indoor near the entrance compared to indoor near the back of the restaurant (p=0.006) and in the outdoor smoking area compared to outdoor ambient levels (p<0.001). Importantly, we did not detect a significant difference in mean PM 2.5 levels in outdoor smoking areas and adjacent indoor areas (p=0.149). Conclusion Similar PM2.5 concentrations in the outdoor and adjacent indoor dining areas of restaurants might indicate SHS drifting through open doors/windows. This may especially be a problem when smoking patronage is high, the outdoor dining area is enclosed, and during peak summer season when restaurants generally have all doors and windows opened. Tighter restrictions around outdoor smoking at restaurants, to protect the health of both patrons and staff members, may be needed.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.PeerJ 02/2014; 2:e272. DOI:10.7717/peerj.272 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are few studies measuring exposure to outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS). Tobacco users often gather at the boundaries of tobacco-free campuses, resulting in unintended consequences. The objective of this study was to measure exposure levels from OTS on sidewalks bordering a tobacco-free university campus. Data were collected while walking along a sidewalk adjacent to a medium traffic road between May and August 2011. Monitoring occurred during “background,” “stop,” and “walk-through” conditions at and near hot spot area to measure fine particulate matter (2.5) from OTS using a portable aerosol monitor. The average PM2.5 levels during stop and walk-through conditions were significantly higher than during background conditions. PM2.5 peak occurrence rate and magnitude of peak concentration were significantly different depending on smoking occurrence. The peak occurrence rate during the stop condition was 10.4 times higher than during the background condition, and 3.1 times higher than during the walk-through condition. Average peak PM2.5 concentrations during the stop condition were 48.7% higher than during the background condition. In conclusion, individuals could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when stopping or even passing by smokers outdoors at the perimeter of tobacco-free campuses. The design and implementation of tobacco-free campus policies need to take into account the unintended consequences of OTS exposure at the boundaries.Implications:In this study, outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure was measured at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure could be determined by peak analysis. Peak occurrence rate and peak concentration for OTS exposure were identified by using peak analysis. People could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when standing or even passing by smokers at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure measurement in other outdoor locations with smokers is needed to support outdoor smoking regulation.Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 08/2014; 64(8). DOI:10.1080/10962247.2014.896295 · 1.17 Impact Factor