Determination of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Exposure by Distance From a Smoking Source.
ABSTRACT An increasing number of cities and countries have implemented outdoor smoking restrictions at building entrances. The purpose of this study was to determine outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure as a function of distance from a smoking source.
Outdoor concentrations of ambient particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were measured at 4 different distances (1, 3, 6, and 9 m) from a simulated smoking source. Wind speed and direction were measured using a wind meter. In total, 98 experiments were conducted in outdoor rooftop. The experiments were conducted in 5 days with average wind speed of 0.8±0.6 m/s. One smoking experiment consisted of 13min (5 nonsmoking min, 3 smoking min, and 5 more nonsmoking min). The difference between mean PM2.5 concentrations during smoking and nonsmoking conditions was determined as the OTS exposure.
The OTS levels were 72.7, 11.3, 4.1, and 2.6 µg/m(3) at 1, 3, 6, and 9 m, respectively. Although the OTS levels decreased with increasing distance from the smoking source, the OTS levels were significantly higher than zero at all distances. The downwind OTS levels were significantly higher than upwind levels. The OTS levels were negatively associated with wind speed.
The outdoor PM2.5 levels were significantly higher with smoking than without smoking. Because the OTS was detectable even at 9 m with only one cigarette smoking, the minimum distance from a smoking source to prevent OTS exposure should be at least 9 m.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.PeerJ. 01/2014; 2:e272.
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ABSTRACT: To examine levels of fine particulates of secondhand smoke (SHS) in outdoor dining/smoking areas and the adjacent indoor dining areas of restaurants to assess possible drift via open windows/doors.NZ Med J. 01/2014; 127(1396):43-52.