We conducted a longitudinal analysis of 117 lymphedema patients in a filariasis-endemic area of Haiti during 1995-2008. No difference in lymphedema progression between those who received or did not receive mass drug administration (MDA) was found on measures of foot (P = 0.24), ankle (P = 0.87), or leg (P = 0.46) circumference; leg volume displacement (P = 0.09), lymphedema stage (P = 0.93), or frequency of adenolymphangitis (ADL) episodes (P = 0.57). Rates of ADL per year were greater after initiation of MDA among both groups (P < 0.01). Nevertheless, patients who received MDA reported improvement in four areas of lymphedema-related quality of life (P ≤ 0.01). Decreases in foot and ankle circumference and ADL episodes were observed during the 1995-1998 lymphedema management study (P ≤ 0.01). This study represents the first longitudinal, quantitative, leg-specific analysis examining the clinical effect of diethylcarbamazine on lymphedema progression and ADL episodes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds of MDA, spot check surveys were added in the other 7 districts of Tanga Region, to assess the regional LF status.MethodsLF vector and transmission surveillance, and human cross sectional surveys in communities and schools, continued in Tanga District as previously reported. In each of the other 7 districts, 2¿3 spot check sites were selected and about 200 schoolchildren were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA). At 1¿2 of the sites in each district, additional about 200 community volunteers were examined for CFA and chronic LF disease, and the CFA positives were re-examined for microfilariae (mf).ResultsThe downward trend in LF transmission and human infection previously reported for Tanga District continued, with prevalences after MDA 8 reaching 15.5% and 3.5% for CFA and mf in communities (decrease by 75.5% and 89.6% from baseline) and 2.3% for CFA in schoolchildren (decrease by 90.9% from baseline). Surprisingly, the prevalence of chronic LF morbidity after MDA 8 was less than half of baseline records. No infective vector mosquitoes were detected after MDA 7. Spot checks in the other districts after MDA 8 showed relatively high LF burdens in the coastal districts. LF burdens gradually decreased when moving to districts further inland and with higher altitudes.ConclusionLF was still widespread in many parts of Tanga Region after MDA 8, in particular in the coastal areas. This calls for intensified control, which should include increased MDA treatment coverage, strengthening of bed net usage, and more male focus in LF health information dissemination. The low LF burdens observed in some inland districts suggest that MDA in these could be stepped down to provide more resources for upscale of control in the coastal areas. Monitoring should continue to guide the programme to ensure that the current major achievements will ultimately lead to successful LF elimination.
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