Acupuncture for the Treatment of Insomnia
ABSTRACT Insomnia appears to be a fast-spreading problem in the modern days, which not only affects people's living quality but also impairs people's working efficiency even causing disability. Pharmacological treatment is effective but frequently with significant side effects. Acupuncture is traditionally used for the treatment of insomnia in China and now is widely accepted in the Western countries. Many research works on clinical applications of acupuncture in the treatment of insomnia and the potential mechanisms underlying the acupuncture treatment have been reported. This chapter will try to provide a systematic review on the research findings. A number of clinical studies, mainly randomized controlled clinical trials, have shown positive effects in acupuncture treatment of insomnia. Some of the studies demonstrated that acupuncture treatment appeared to be better than conventional pharmacological drugs in the improvement of insomnia. These encouraging findings are limited by the qualities problems of the methodology used in these clinical studies. The clinical efficacy of acupuncture appeared to be supported by evidence obtained from basic neuroendocrinological studies. A number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture may modulate a wide range of neuroendocrinological factors following stimulation of acupoints. Evidence has suggested that the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in treatment of insomnia is potentially mediated by a variety of neurotransmitters including norepinephrine, melatonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and β-endorphin. However, due to the complexity, these findings are far from conclusive. More research is necessary. More rigors methodology and integrated approach to evaluate both clinical and basic research evidence are required for future studies.
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ABSTRACT: Complementary and Integrative Medicine (CIM) encompasses many diverse therapies, including natural products and mind and body practices. Use of CIM is common and can benefit patients in palliative care. However, because patients in palliative care are often frail and elderly, the clinician should consider a patient's comorbidities before recommending certain therapies, such as natural products. In this article, specific examples of CIM are provided for symptoms commonly seen in palliative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 02/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cger.2015.01.004 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Beta-endorphin (β-END) is an opioid neuropeptide which has an important role in the development of hypotheses concerning the non-synaptic or paracrine communication of brain messages. This kind of communication between neurons has been designated volume transmission (VT) to differentiate it clearly from synaptic communication. VT occurs over short as well as long distances via the extracellular space in the brain, as well as via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowing through the ventricular spaces inside the brain and the arachnoid space surrounding the central nervous system (CNS). To understand how β-END can have specific behavioral effects, we use the notion behavioral state, inspired by the concept of machine state, coming from Turing (Proc London Math Soc, Series 2,42:230-265, 1937). In section 1.4 the sequential organization of male rat behavior is explained showing that an animal is not free to switch into another state at any given moment. Funneling-constraints restrict the number of possible behavioral transitions in specific phases while at other moments in the sequence the transition to other behavioral states is almost completely open. The effects of β-END on behaviors like food intake and sexual behavior, and the mechanisms involved in reward, meditation and pain control are discussed in detail. The effects on the sequential organization of behavior and on state transitions dominate the description of these effects.