mTORC1 Controls Mitochondrial Activity and Biogenesis through 4E-BP-Dependent Translational Regulation.
ABSTRACT mRNA translation is thought to be the most energy-consuming process in the cell. Translation and energy metabolism are dysregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. However, the mechanisms that coordinate translation and energy metabolism in mammals remain largely unknown. The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates mRNA translation and other anabolic processes. We demonstrate that mTORC1 controls mitochondrial activity and biogenesis by selectively promoting translation of nucleus-encoded mitochondria-related mRNAs via inhibition of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Stimulating the translation of nucleus-encoded mitochondria-related mRNAs engenders an increase in ATP production capacity, a required energy source for translation. These findings establish a feed-forward loop that links mRNA translation to oxidative phosphorylation, thereby providing a key mechanism linking aberrant mTOR signaling to conditions of abnormal cellular energy metabolism such as neoplasia and insulin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: The rates of different ATP-consuming reactions were measured in concanavalin A-stimulated thymocytes, a model system in which more than 80% of the ATP consumption can be accounted for. There was a clear hierarchy of the responses of different energy-consuming reactions to changes in energy supply: pathways of macromolecule biosynthesis (protein synthesis and RNA/DNA synthesis) were most sensitive to energy supply, followed by sodium cycling and then calcium cycling across the plasma membrane. Mitochondrial proton leak was the least sensitive to energy supply. Control analysis was used to quantify the relative control over ATP production exerted by the individual groups of ATP-consuming reactions. Control was widely shared; no block of reactions had more than one-third of the control. A fuller control analysis showed that there appeared to be a hierarchy of control over the flux through ATP: protein synthesis > RNA/DNA synthesis and substrate oxidation > Na+ cycling and Ca2+ cycling > other ATP consumers and mitochondrial proton leak. Control analysis also indicated that there was significant control over the rates of individual ATP consumers by energy supply. Each ATP consumer had strong control over its own rate but very little control over the rates of the other ATP consumers.Biochemical Journal 11/1995; 312 ( Pt 1):163-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cloning is described of two related human complementary DNAs encoding polypeptides that interact specifically with the translation initiation factor eIF-4E, which binds to the messenger RNA 5'-cap structure. Interaction of these proteins with eIF-4E inhibits translation but treatment of cells with insulin causes one of them to become hyperphosphorylated and dissociate from eIF-4E, thereby relieving the translational inhibition. The action of this new regulator of protein synthesis is therefore modulated by insulin, which acts to stimulate the overall rate of translation and promote cell growth.Nature 11/1994; 371(6500):762-7. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease caused by mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products form a functional complex and inhibit phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP1. These functions of TSC1/TSC2 are likely mediated by mTOR. Here we report that TSC2 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) toward Rheb, a Ras family GTPase. Rheb stimulates phosphorylation of S6K and 4EBP1. This function of Rheb is blocked by rapamycin and dominant-negative mTOR. Rheb stimulates the phosphorylation of mTOR and plays an essential role in regulation of S6K and 4EBP1 in response to nutrients and cellular energy status. Our data demonstrate that Rheb acts downstream of TSC1/TSC2 and upstream of mTOR to regulate cell growth.Genes & Development 09/2003; 17(15):1829-34. · 12.44 Impact Factor