Menorrhagia in Patients With Type I Glycogen Storage Disease

Departments of Pediatrics, Divisions of Medical Genetics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 5.18). 11/2013; 122(6). DOI: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000435451.86108.82
Source: PubMed


To evaluate menorrhagia in a cohort of women with glycogen storage disease type I because it appears to be an under-recognized problem in females of reproductive age.
A retrospective chart review was performed on 13 menstruating patients with glycogen storage disease type I (age 23-48 years) for a diagnosis of menorrhagia.
Nine (69%) (confidence interval 0.39-0.91) women had development of menorrhagia. Median hemoglobin values in these patients were generally low (range 9.5-12.85 g/dL) but not different from those of the nonmenorrhagia group (hemoglobin range 9.55-11.0 g/dL) with glycogen storage disease type I. Four patients with menorrhagia required hospitalization or emergency department visits for treatment of menorrhagia. Two of the four patients hospitalized required blood transfusion, with an additional patient requiring a transfusion during pregnancy. Eight patients (89%) either were recommended to have or required medical or surgical treatment of their menorrhagia.
Glycogen storage disease type I is associated with menorrhagia. The evaluation should include assessment of coagulation functions and referral to a gynecologist, hematologist, or both, because bleeding diathesis and polycystic ovary syndrome are common in patients with glycogen storage disease type I.

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Available from: Areeg El-gharbawy, Dec 28, 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I) is a rare disease of variable clinical severity that primarily affects the liver and kidney. It is caused by deficient activity of the glucose 6-phosphatase enzyme (GSD Ia) or a deficiency in the microsomal transport proteins for glucose 6-phosphate (GSD Ib), resulting in excessive accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa. Patients with GSD I have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, lactic acidemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and growth retardation. Individuals with GSD type Ia typically have symptoms related to hypoglycemia in infancy when the interval between feedings is extended to 3–4 hours. Other manifestations of the disease vary in age of onset, rate of disease progression, and severity. In addition, patients with type Ib have neutropenia, impaired neutrophil function, and inflammatory bowel disease. This guideline for the management of GSD I was developed as an educational resource for health-care providers to facilitate prompt, accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients. Methods: A national group of experts in various aspects of GSD I met to review the evidence base from the scientific literature and provided their expert opinions. Consensus was developed in each area of diagnosis, treatment, and management. Results: This management guideline specifically addresses evaluation and diagnosis across multiple organ systems (hepatic, kidney, gastrointestinal/nutrition, hematologic, cardiovascular, reproductive) involved in GSD I. Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis stemming from presenting features and diagnostic algorithms are discussed. Aspects of diagnostic evaluation and nutritional and medical management, including care coordination, genetic counseling, hepatic and renal transplantation, and prenatal diagnosis, are also addressed. Conclusion: A guideline that facilitates accurate diagnosis and optimal management of patients with GSD I was developed. This guideline helps health-care providers recognize patients with all forms of GSD I, expedite diagnosis, and minimize adverse sequelae from delayed diagnosis and inappropriate management. It also helps to identify gaps in scientific knowledge that exist today and suggests future studies.
    Genetics in Medicine 11/2014; 16(11). DOI:10.1038/gim.2014.128 · 7.33 Impact Factor