Estimated emissions of chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons based on an interspecies correlation method in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 3.16). 11/2013; 470-471C:829-834. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.071
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although many studies have been conducted in recent years on the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) at the large regional (such as East Asia) and national scales, relatively few studies have been conducted for cities or metropolitan areas. In this study, 192 air samples were collected in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China in November 2010. The atmospheric mixing ratios of six halocarbons were analyzed, including trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11, CCl3F), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12, CCl2F2), monochlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22, CHClF2), 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b, CH3CCl2F), 1-dichloro-1,1-fluoroethane (HCFC-142b, CH3CClF2), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), and their emissions were estimated based on an interspecies correlation method using HCFC-22 as the reference species. The results showed no significant change in the regional concentration and emission of CFC in the past 10years, suggesting that the continuous regional emission of CFC has had no significant effect on the CFC regional concentration in the PRD region. Concentrations and emissions of HCFCs and HFCs are significantly higher compared to previous research in the PRD region (P<0.05). The largest emission was for HCFC-22, most likely due to its substitution for CFC-12 in the industrial and commercial refrigeration subsector, and the rapid development of the room air-conditioner and extruded polystyrene subsectors. The PRD's ODP-weighted emissions of the target HCFCs provided 9% (7-12%) of the national emissions for the corresponding species. The PRD's GWP-weighted emissions of the target HCFCs and HFC-134a account for 10% (7-12%) and 8% (7-9%), respectively, of the national emissions for the corresponding species, and thus are important contributions to China's total emissions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High-frequency in situ measurements at Gosan (Jeju Island, Korea) during November 2007 to December 2008 have been combined with interspecies correlation analysis to estimate national emissions of halogenated compounds (HCs) in East Asia, including the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)), and other chlorinated and brominated compounds. Our results suggest that overall China is the dominant emitter of HCs in East Asia, however significant emissions are also found in South Korea, Japan and Taiwan for HFC-134a, HFC-143a, C(2)F(6), SF(6), CH(3)CCl(3), and HFC-365mfc. The combined emissions of CFCs, halon-1211, HCFCs, HFCs, PFCs, and SF(6) from all four countries in 2008 are 25.3, 1.6, 135, 42.6, 3.6, and 2.0 kt/a, respectively. They account for approximately 15%, 26%, 29%, 16%, 32%, and 26.5% of global emissions, respectively. Our results show signs that Japan has successfully phased out CFCs and HCFCs in compliance with the Montreal Protocol (MP), Korea has started transitioning from HCFCs to HFCs, while China still significantly consumes HCFCs. Taiwan, while not directly regulated under the MP, is shown to have adapted the use of HFCs. Combined analysis of emission rates and the interspecies correlation matrix presented in this study proves to be a powerful tool for monitoring and diagnosing changes in consumption of HCs in East Asia.
    Environmental Science & Technology 06/2011; 45(13):5668-75. · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pearl river delta (PRD) region is one of the most important industrial and manufacturing centers of China and the world. In order to explore the regional mixing ratios of halocarbons in the PRD atmosphere and to reconcile the major halocarbon emission sources, air samples were collected in an urban site in Guangzhou City, a semi-urban site in Panyu and a rural site on Dinghu Mountain, as well as roadside sites and vehicular tunnels of the PRD in 2001 and 2004. The samples were analyzed for a variety of carbon-containing compounds. The results revealed elevated regional mixing ratios of most halocarbons, especially trichloroethene (C2HCl3), methyl iodide (CH3I), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon-1211, CBrClF2), 1-dichloro-1,1-fluoroethane (HCFC-142b, CH3CClF2) and trichloromethane (CHCl3) when compared with the background levels of the western Pacific and East Asian coast, and the Northern Hemisphere suggesting that there are significant sources of halocarbons in the PRD region. Higher dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12, CCl2F2), 1,1,1-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113, CCl2FCClF2), dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and tribromomethane (CHBr3) mixing ratios were found in the tunnels and roadside samples when compared with the ambient samples. In these samples, CH2Br2 and CHBr3 correlated well with each other and methyl bromide (CH3Br) suggesting they are associated with exhaust emissions from vehicles running on leaded gasoline. High levels of methyl halides: methyl chloride (CH3Cl), CH3Br and CH3I, and CH2Br2, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), CHBr3 and dimethyl sulfide (C2H6S, DMS) were simultaneously observed in the oceanic air masses that originated from the coastal areas of southeast China and had passed over the Pearl River Estuary. Good correlations were found between CH2Br2 and CHBr3 with linear regression slopes of 0.17 and 0.15 for the Dinghu Mountain and Guangzhou City samples, respectively, and between CH3I and CHBr3, and DMS suggesting that emissions from the coastal territorial ecosystems of the PRD are important sources of the methyl halides, CH2Br2, CHBrCl2, CHBr3 and DMS observed.
    Atmospheric Environment 12/2006; · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Pearl River Delta is a major manufacturing region on the south coast of China that produces more than dollar 100 billion of goods annually for export to North America, Europe, and other parts of Asia. Considerable air pollution is caused by the manufacturing industries themselves and by the power plants, trucks, and ships that support them. We estimate that 10-40% of emissions of primary SO2, NO(x), RSP, and VOC in the region are caused by export-related activities. Using the STEM-2K1 atmospheric transport model, we estimate that these emissions contribute 5-30% of the ambient concentrations of SO2, NO(x), NO(z), and VOC in the region. One reason that the exported goods are cheap and therefore attractive to consumers in developed countries is that emission controls are lacking or of low performance. We estimate that state-of-the-art controls could be installed at an annualized cost of dollar 0.3-3 billion, representing 0.3-3% of the value of the goods produced. We conclude that mitigation measures could be adopted without seriously affecting the prices of exported goods and would achieve considerable human health and other benefits in the form of reduced air pollutant concentrations in densely populated urban areas.
    Environmental Science and Technology 05/2006; 40(7):2099-107. · 5.48 Impact Factor


Available from
Dec 9, 2014