The induction of autophagy in the mammalian heart during the perinatal period is an essential adaptation required to survive early neonatal starvation; however, the mechanisms that mediate autophagy suppression once feeding is established are not known. Insulin signaling in the heart is transduced via insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rs). We disrupted insulin and IGF-1R signaling by generating mice with combined cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Irs1 and Irs2. Here we show that loss of IRS signaling prevented the physiological suppression of autophagy that normally parallels the postnatal increase in circulating insulin. This resulted in unrestrained autophagy in cardiomyocytes, which contributed to myocyte loss, heart failure, and premature death. This process was ameliorated either by activation of mTOR with aa supplementation or by genetic suppression of autophagic activation. Loss of IRS1 and IRS2 signaling also increased apoptosis and precipitated mitochondrial dysfunction, which were not reduced when autophagic flux was normalized. Together, these data indicate that in addition to prosurvival signaling, insulin action in early life mediates the physiological postnatal suppression of autophagy, thereby linking nutrient sensing to postnatal cardiac development.
"Recent studies have suggested an important role for insulin signaling in the regulation of myocardial autophagy  . Mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of both IRS1 and IRS2 (CIRS12KO) showed unrestrained autophagy in cardiomyocytes, which contributed to myocyte loss, heart failure, and premature death. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is important in the heart for maintaining homeostasis when changes in nutrient levels occur. Autophagy is involved in the turnover of cellular components, and is rapidly upregulated during stress. Studies have found that autophagy is reduced in metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. This leads to accumulation of protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles, which contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Autophagy is primarily regulated by two components: the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Although mTOR integrates information about growth factors and nutrients and is a negative regulator of autophagy, AMPK is an energy sensor and activates autophagy when energy levels are low. These pathways therefore present targets for the development of autophagy-modulating therapies.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2013; 25(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2013.11.004 · 9.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, diabetes mellitus has become an epidemic and now represents one of the most prevalent disorders. Cardiovascular complications are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. While ischaemic events dominate the cardiac complications of diabetes, it is widely recognised that the risk for developing heart failure is also increased in the absence of overt myocardial ischaemia and hypertension or is accelerated in the presence of these comorbidities. These diabetes-associated changes in myocardial structure and function have been called diabetic cardiomyopathy. Numerous molecular mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy following analysis of various animal models of type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in genetically modified mouse models. The steady increase in reports presenting novel mechanistic data on this subject expands the list of potential underlying mechanisms. The current review provides an update on molecular alterations that may contribute to the structural and functional alterations in the diabetic heart.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.