Type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-study.
ABSTRACT In the last decade, significant improvements have been achieved in maternal-fetal and diabetic care which make pregnancy possible in an increasing number of type 1 diabetic women with end-organ damage. Optimal counseling is important to make the advancements available to the relevant patients and to ensure the safety of mother and child. A systematic review will help to provide a survey of the available methods and to promote optimal counseling.
To review the literature on diabetic nephropathy and pregnancy in type 1 diabetes.
Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were scanned in November 2012 (MESH, Emtree, and free terms on pregnancy and diabetic nephropathy). Studies were selected that report on pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy in 1980-2012 (i.e. since the detection of microalbuminuria). Case reports with less than 5 cases and reports on kidney grafts were excluded. Paper selection and data extraction were performed in duplicate and matched for consistency. As the relevant reports were highly heterogeneous, we decided to perform a narrative review, with discussions oriented towards the period of publication.
Of the 1058 references considered, 34 fulfilled the selection criteria, and one was added from reference lists. The number of cases considered in the reports, which generally involved single-center studies, ranged from 5 to 311. The following issues were significant: (i) the evidence is scattered over many reports of differing format and involving small series (only 2 included over 100 patients), (ii) definitions are non-homogeneous, (iii) risks for pregnancy-related adverse events are increased (preterm delivery, caesarean section, perinatal death, and stillbirth) and do not substantially change over time, except for stillbirth (from over 10% to about 5%), (iv) the increase in risks with nephropathy progression needs confirmation in large homogeneous series, (v) the newly reported increase in malformations in diabetic nephropathy underlines the need for further studies.
The heterogeneous evidence from studies on diabetic nephropathy in pregnancy emphasizes the need for further perspective studies on this issue.
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ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of diabetic nephropathy on the course of pregnancy, perinatal outcome, and infant development and determined the influence of pregnancy on maternal hypertension and renal function. Maternal proteinuria usually increased during pregnancy (greater than 3 gm/24 hours in 69%), and hypertension was present by the third trimester in 73%. The degree of proteinuria correlated with diastolic pressure and creatinine clearance. After pregnancy, proteinuria declined in 65% of the mothers, hypertension was absent in 43.5%, and the expected rate of fall in creatinine clearance was not accelerated. Among 35 patients, abortion occurred spontaneously or was performed electively in 25.7%, and 71% of the remainder underwent delivery before 37 weeks. Birth weight was related to maternal blood pressure and creatinine clearance. Neonatal morbidity was common, but the perinatal survival rate was 89%. Infants seen at follow-up without congenital anomalies had normal development at 8 to 36 months of age. We concluded that perinatal outcome has significantly improved for diabetic women with nephropathy.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/1982; 141(7):741-51. · 3.97 Impact Factor
Horumon to rinsho. Clinical endocrinology 08/1981; 29(7):789-93.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the risk factors for the morbidity of the mothers and their fetus in patients with diabetic retinopathy and/or nephropathy with an open family planning. We compared the course of pregnancies, complications as well as the maternal and neonatal morbidity in 76 patients with diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy (White R F) with 85 patients without severe microangiopathy (White C D). We found a correlation between retinopathy progression and hyperglycaemia during the first trimester (p < 0.05). There was an increase in the deterioration of visual acuity up to blindness due to the progression of this microangiopathy in cases of proliferative retinopathy. There was a significant increase of the mean diastolic blood pressure (mdp) and preeclamptic symptoms occurred in 71% of the cases with severe microangiopathy (p < 0.05). Deterioration of the diabetic nephropathy with excessive proteinuria (> 10 g/d) and unmanageable hypertension or a progression of the retinopathy led to an earlier delivery in 80% of the patients (p < 0.05). A high rate of preterm deliveries (39%) and a frequent occurrence of intrauterine growth retardation's (9%) characterised the fetal outcome. The following examinations for a patient with an open family planning, if diabetes is diagnosed during childhood or the course of the disease is between 10 and 15 years, should be done: Ophthalmological evaluation, control of the renal function, contraceptive advice and an improvement of the metabolic situation. In case of a diabetic nephropathy in combination with hypertonus the patients shoud be warned against pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 06/1995; 55(5):275-9. · 0.96 Impact Factor