A Red-Shifted, Fast-Relaxing Azobenzene Photoswitch for Visible Light Control of an Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor
ABSTRACT Azobenzene photoswitches have become a dependable method for rapid and exact modulation of biological processes and material science systems. The requirement of ultraviolet (UV) light for azobenzene isomerization is not ideal for biological systems due to poor tissue penetration and potentially damaging effects. While modified azo-benzene cores with a red-shifted cis to trans isomerization have been previously described, they have not yet been incorporated into a powerful method to control protein function: the photoswitchable tethered ligand (PTL) approach. We report the synthesis and characterization of a red-shifted PTL, L-MAG0460, for the light-gated ionotropic glutamate receptor LiGluR. In cultured mammalian cells, the LiGluR+L-MAG0460 system is activated rapidly by illumination with 400-520 nm light to generate a large ionic current. The current rapidly turns off in the dark as the PTL relaxes thermally back to trans. The visible light excitation and single wavelength behavior considerably simplifies use and should improve utilization in tissue.
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ABSTRACT: New crownophanes containing 2,7-dioxyfluorenone and 4,4′-azobiphenoxy moieties linked by di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentaethylene glycol residues were synthesized. Just in case of obtaining largest crownophane with pentaethyleneglycol linkers, the dimeric cyclization product was also isolated in low yield. Obtained crownophanes, according to 1H NMR spectral data exist in conformations with closed intramolecular cavity in solution. Photoinduced E–Z isomerization of crownophane containing triethylene glycol linkers were investigated. The azobenzene fragment inclusion into crownophane reduces the photoisomerization rate compared to model 4,4′-dimethoxyazobenzene. In all the obtained crownophanes according to NMR, UV–Vis and X-ray data 4,4′-azobiphenoxy fragment is in E-configuration in solution as well as in the solid state. Crystal packing of all crownophanes has distinct feature—stacking arrangement of fluorenone moieties probably due to electrostatic dipole–dipole interactions. The formation of pseudorotaxane-type host–guest complexes of these crownophanes with paraquat dication was detected by FABMS and 1H NMR spectroscopy. UV–Vis spectra show no significant changes upon complex formation.Journal of inclusion phenomena and macrocyclic chemistry 04/2015; 81(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s10847-015-0484-0 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibiScientific Reports 05/2015; 5. DOI:10.1038/srep09769 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most inherited forms of blindness are caused by mutations that lead to photoreceptor cell death but spare second- and third-order retinal neurons. Expression of the light-gated excitatory mammalian ion channel light-gated ionotropic glutamate receptor (LiGluR) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the retina degeneration (rd1) mouse model of blindness was previously shown to restore some visual functions when stimulated by UV light. Here, we report restored retinal function in visible light in rodent and canine models of blindness through the use of a second-generation photoswitch for LiGluR, maleimide-azobenzene-glutamate 0 with peak efficiency at 460 nm (MAG0460). In the blind rd1 mouse, multielectrode array recordings of retinal explants revealed robust and uniform light-evoked firing when LiGluR-MAG0460 was targeted to RGCs and robust but diverse activity patterns in RGCs when LiGluR-MAG0460 was targeted to ON-bipolar cells (ON-BCs). LiGluR-MAG0460 in either RGCs or ON-BCs of the rd1 mouse reinstated innate light-avoidance behavior and enabled mice to distinguish between different temporal patterns of light in an associative learning task. In the rod-cone dystrophy dog model of blindness, LiGluR-MAG0460 in RGCs restored robust light responses to retinal explants and intravitreal delivery of LiGluR and MAG0460 was well tolerated in vivo. The results in both large and small animal models of photoreceptor degeneration provide a path to clinical translation.