Article

Body size and metabolic differences in Maine Coon cats with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

1Department of Clinical Sciences, Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, MA, USA.
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.22). 02/2013; 15(2):74-80. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X12460847

ABSTRACT An interplay between growth, glucose regulation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may exist, but has not been studied in detail. The purpose of this study was to characterize morphometric features, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose metabolism in Maine Coon cats with HCM. Body weight, body condition score (BCS), head length and width, and abdominal circumference were measured in Maine Coon cats >2 years of age. Echocardiography and thoracic radiography (for measurement of humerus length, and fourth and twelfth vertebrae length) were also performed. Blood was collected for biochemistry profile, DNA testing, insulin and IGF-1. Sixteen of 63 cats had HCM [myosin binding protein C (MYBPC)+, n = 3 and MYBPC−, n = 13] and 47/63 were echocardiographically normal (MYBPC+, n = 17 and MYBPC−, n = 30). There were no significant differences in any measured parameter between MYBPC+ and MYBPC− cats. Cats with HCM were significantly older (P <0.001), heavier (P = 0.006), more obese (P = 0.008), and had longer humeri (P = 0.02) compared with the HCM− group. Cats with HCM also had higher serum glucose (P = 0.01), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and IGF-1 (P = 0.01) concentrations, were from smaller litters (P = 0.04), and were larger at 6 months (P = 0.02) and at 1 year of age (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (P <0.001), BCS (P = 0.03) and HOMA (P = 0.047) remained significantly associated with HCM. These results support the hypothesis that early growth and nutrition, larger body size and obesity may be environmental modifiers of genetic predisposition to HCM. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of early nutrition on the phenotypic expression of HCM.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Diet might influence progression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).Objective To investigate whether diet composition could alter clinical, biochemical, or echocardiographic variables in cats with HCM.AnimalsTwenty-nine cats with HCM (International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council stage 1b) examined at a university teaching hospital.Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. After physical examination, echocardiogram, and blood collection, cats were randomized to 1 of 3 diets, which varied in carbohydrate and fat content and ingredients. Measurements were repeated after 6 months.ResultsThere were no significant differences among the 3 groups at baseline. After 6 months, there were no significant changes in the primary endpoints, left ventricular free wall (Group A, P = .760; Group B, P = .475; Group C, P = .066) or interventricular septal thickness in diastole (Group A, P = .528; Group B, P = .221; Group C, P = .097). Group A had significant increases in BUN (P = .008) and cholesterol (P = .021), while Group B had significant increases in BUN (P = .008), cholesterol (P = .007), and triglycerides (P = .005), and significant decreases in NT-proBNP (P = .013) and hs-troponin I (P = .043). Group C had significant decreases in body weight (P = .021), left atrial dimension (P = .035), interventricular septal thickness in systole (P = .038), and liver enzymes (P = .034–.038).Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceThese data suggest that diet might influence some clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic variables in cats with HCM.
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