Article

Reduction of Postoperative Ileus by Early Enteral Nutrition in Patients Undergoing Major Rectal Surgery: Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

*Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands †Department of Surgery, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Annals of surgery (Impact Factor: 7.19). 10/2013; DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000000288
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The current trend in postoperative nutrition is to promote a normal oral diet as early as possible. However, postoperative ileus is a frequent and common problem after major abdominal surgery. This study was designed to investigate whether early enteral nutrition (EEN), as a bridge to a normal diet, can reduce postoperative ileus.
Patients undergoing major rectal surgery for locally advanced primary or recurrent rectal carcinoma (after neoadjuvant (chemo)-radiation, with or without intraoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to EEN (n = 61) or early parenteral nutrition (EPN, n = 62) in addition to an oral diet. Early nutrition was started 8 hours after surgery. Early parenteral nutrition was given as control nutrition to obtain caloric equivalence and minimize confounding. The primary endpoint was time to first defecation; secondary outcomes were morbidity, other ileus symptoms, and length of hospital stay.
Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the time to first defecation was significantly shorter in the enteral nutrition arm than in the control arm (P = 0.04). Moreover, anastomotic leakage occurred significantly less frequently in the enteral group (1 patient) compared with parenteral supplementation (9 patients, P = 0.009). Mean length of stay in the enteral group was 13.4 ± 2.2 days versus 16.7 ± 2.3 days in the parenteral group (P = 0.007).
Early enteral nutrition is safe and associated with significantly less ileus. Early enteral nutrition is associated with less anastomotic leakage in patients undergoing extensive rectal surgery.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Petra Boelens, Dec 19, 2014
3 Followers
 · 
307 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. The pathogenesis of postoperative ileus (POI) is complex. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of peritoneal air exposure on the POI intestinal inflammation and the underlying mechanism. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (6/group): the control group, the sham group, and three exposure groups with peritoneal air exposure for 1, 2, or 3 h. At 24 h after surgery, we analyzed the gastrointestinal transit, the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, the myeloperoxidase activity, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ileum and colon. The oxidant and antioxidant levels in the ileum and colon were analyzed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results. Peritoneal air exposure caused an air-exposure-time-dependent decrease in the gastrointestinal transit. The length of peritoneal air exposure is correlated with the severity of both systemic and intestinal inflammations and the increases in the levels of MDA, SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC. Conclusions. The length of peritoneal air exposure is proportional to the degree of intestinal paralysis and the severity of intestinal inflammation, which is linked to the oxidative stress response.
    Mediators of Inflammation 07/2014; 2014:924296. DOI:10.1155/2014/924296 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The measurement of outcomes in non-metastatic colon and rectal cancer patients is a multi-dimensional endeavor involving prediction tools, standard of care, and best treatment guidelines. Socioeconomic, demographic, and racial impacts on outcome must be carefully considered. Consideration must also be given to measures of cost, quality, and healthcare delivery in response to initiatives meant to optimize patient health while maintaining quality of life. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 10/2014; 110(5). DOI:10.1002/jso.23696 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review addresses recent relevant advances to clinical nutrition regarding gastrointestinal disease surgery. Medline Ovid, EMBASE and Central were searched systematically in April 2014. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and observational studies evaluating nutritional support in gastrointestinal surgery published within 5 years. The review included 56 relevant studies. Themes were: nutrition screening and risk factors predict outcome; preoperative nutritional support; shortening fasting periods and including carbohydrate solutions; early nutrition after surgery; immune modulating nutrition; synbiotics, growth hormone, omega-3 and oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition in combination. Screening for nutritional risk is profound, with special focus on dietary intake in the past week. Age and severity of disease need to be included in the screening system. Patients at severe nutritional risk benefit from nutritional therapy before surgery. New standards are developing quickly and clinical guidelines on surgery should include updated knowledge within clinical nutrition.
    Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 10/2014; 9(4):1-7. DOI:10.1586/17474124.2015.972371 · 2.55 Impact Factor
Show more