[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported in association with exenatide, sitagliptin, and type 2 diabetes without use of these medications. It remains unknown whether exenatide or sitagliptin increase the risk of acute pancreatitis.
A retrospective cohort study of a large medical and pharmacy claims database was performed. Data for 786,656 patients were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were built to compare the risk of acute pancreatitis between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and between exenatide, sitagliptin, and control diabetes medication use.
Incidence of acute pancreatitis in the nondiabetic control group, diabetic control group, exenatide group, and sitagliptin group was 1.9, 5.6, 5.7, and 5.6 cases per 1,000 patient years, respectively. The risk of acute pancreatitis was significantly higher in the combined diabetic groups than in the nondiabetic control group (adjusted hazard ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.7-2.5]). Risk of acute pancreatitis was similar in the exenatide versus diabetic control group (0.9 [0.6-1.5]) and sitagliptin versus diabetic control group (1.0 [0.7-1.3]).
Our study demonstrated increased incidence of acute pancreatitis in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients but did not find an association between the use of exenatide or sitagliptin and acute pancreatitis. The limitations of this observational claims-based analysis cannot exclude the possibility of an increased risk.
Diabetes care 11/2010; 33(11):2349-54. DOI:10.2337/dc10-0482 · 8.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controversy exists regarding the potential regenerative influences of incretin therapy on pancreatic β cells versus possible adverse pancreatic proliferative effects. Examination of pancreata from age matched organ donors with type 2 diabetes (DM) treated by incretin therapy (n=8) or other therapy (n=12) and non diabetic controls (n=14) reveals a ∼40% increased pancreatic mass in DM treated with incretin therapy with both increased exocrine cell proliferation (p<0.0001) and dysplasia (increased pancreatic intraepithelia neoplasia, p<0.01). Pancreas in DM treated with incretin therapy was notable for α cell hyperplasia and glucagon expressing microadenomas (3/8) and a neuroendocrine tumor. β cell mass was reduced by approximately 60% in those with DM, yet a 6 fold increase was observed in incretin treated subjects although diabetes persists. Endocrine cells co-staining for insulin and glucagon were increased in DM compared to non diabetic controls (p<0.05) and markedly further increased by incretin therapy (p<0.05). In conclusion, in humans, incretin therapy resulted in a marked expansion of the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic compartments, the former being accompanied by increased proliferation and dysplasia, the latter by α cell hyperplasia with the potential for evolution into neuroendocrine tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) have been recently associated with increased risk of pancreatitis and cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials is the assessment of the effect of DPP4i on the incidence of major cardiovascular events (MACE), cancer, and pancreatitis.
An extensive Medline and Embase search for 'vildagliptin', 'sitagliptin', 'saxagliptin', 'alogliptin', 'linagliptin', and 'dutogliptin' was performed, collecting all randomized clinical trials on humans up to March 1, 2011. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed including all randomized clinical trials with a duration of at least 24 weeks, enrolling patients with type 2 diabetes, comparing DPP4i with either placebo or active drugs. Completed but still unpublished trials were identified through a search of www.clinicaltrials.gov, Food and Drug Administration, and European Medicines Agency website.
Fifty-three trials enrolling 20,312 and 13,569 patients for DPP4i and comparators, respectively, were included, reporting 176 malignancies, 257 MACE, and 22 pancreatitis. DPP4i, compared with placebo or other treatment, were associated with a similar risk of cancer (MH-OR 1.020 [0.742-1.402]; p = 0.90) and pancreatitis (0.786 [0.357-1.734], p = 0.55), and with a reduced risk of MACE (MH-OR 0.689 [0.528-0.899], p = 0.006).
The present meta-analysis seems to exclude any relevant short term effect of DPP4i on the incidence of cancer and suggest a possible protection from cardiovascular events. This result should be interpreted with caution, as those events were not the principal endpoint, the trial duration was short, and the characteristics of patients included could be different from routine clinical practice.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 11/2011; 27 Suppl 3(S3):57-64. DOI:10.1185/03007995.2011.602964 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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