1] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA  Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea  Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Republic of Korea.
Layered materials of graphene and MoS2, for example, have recently emerged as an exciting material system for future electronics and optoelectronics. Vertical integration of layered materials can enable the design of novel electronic and photonic devices. Here, we report highly efficient photocurrent generation from vertical heterostructures of layered materials. We show that vertically stacked graphene-MoS2-graphene and graphene-MoS2-metal junctions can be created with a broad junction area for efficient photon harvesting. The weak electrostatic screening effect of graphene allows the integration of single or dual gates under and/or above the vertical heterostructure to tune the band slope and photocurrent generation. We demonstrate that the amplitude and polarity of the photocurrent in the gated vertical heterostructures can be readily modulated by the electric field of an external gate to achieve a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% and internal quantum efficiency up to 85%. Our study establishes a method to control photocarrier generation, separation and transport processes using an external electric field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With advances in exfoliation and synthetic techniques, atomically thin films of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides have recently been isolated and characterized. Their two-dimensional structure, coupled with a direct band gap in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, suggests suitability for digital electronics and optoelectronics. Towards that end, several classes of high-performance devices have been reported along with significant progress in understanding their physical properties. Here, we present a review of the architecture, operating principles, and physics of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors. By critically assessing and comparing the performance of these devices with competing technologies, the merits and shortcomings of this emerging class of electronic materials are identified, thereby providing a roadmap for future development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphene's layered structure has opened new prospects for the exploration of properties of other monolayer-thick two-dimensional (2D) layered crystals. The emergence of these inorganic 2D atomic crystals beyond graphene promises a diverse spectrum of properties. For example, hexagonal-boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material closest in structure to graphene is an insulator, while niobium selenide (NbSe2), a transition metal dichalcogenide, is metallic, and monolayers of other transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) are direct band gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties exhibited by these 2D layered material systems can potentially be engineered on-demand and creates exciting prospects for using such systems in device applications ranging from electronics, photonics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, transparent electrodes, and sensing. A review of the structure, properties, and the emerging device applications of these materials is presented in this paper. While the layered structure of these materials makes them amenable to mechanical exfoliation for quickly unveiling their novel properties and for fabricating proof-of-concept devices, an overview of the synthesis routes that can potentially enable scalable avenues for forming these 2D atomic crystals is also discussed.
Journal of Materials Research 02/2014; 29(03):348-361. DOI:10.1557/jmr.2014.6 · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an experimental investigation on the exciton dynamics of monolayer and bulk WSe2 samples, both of which are studied by femtosecond transient absorption microscopy. Under the excitation of a 405-nm pump pulse, the differential reflection signal of a probe pulse (tuned to the A-exciton resonance) reaches a peak rapidly that indicates an ultrafast formation process of excitons. By resolving the differential reflection signal in both time and space, we directly determine the exciton lifetimes of 18 ± 1 and 160 ± 10 ps and the exciton diffusion coefficients of 15 ± 5 and 9 ± 3 cm(2)/s in the monolayer and bulk samples, respectively. From these values, we deduce other parameters characterizing the exciton dynamics such as the diffusion length, the mobility, the mean free path, and the mean free length. These fundamental parameters are useful for understanding the excitons in monolayer and bulk WSe2 and are important for applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and electronics.
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