Prevalence and Neonatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Preterm Infants
ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across gestational age, examine the risk of ASD by gestational age controlling for other risk factors, and identify potential risk factors in the neonatal intensive care unit.
A retrospective cohort of infants born at ≥24 weeks between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007 at 11 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals (n = 195 021). ASD cases were defined by a diagnosis made at a Kaiser Permanente ASD evaluation center, by a clinical specialist, or by a pediatrician. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between gestational age and ASD as well as potential risk factors in the neonatal intensive care unit and ASD.
The prevalence of ASD in infants <37 weeks was 1.78% compared with 1.22% in infants born ≥37 weeks (P < .001). Compared with term infants, infants born at 24-26 weeks had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for a diagnosis of ASD of 2.7 (95% CI 1.5-5.0). Infants born at 27-33 weeks (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and 34-36 weeks (adjusted HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.4) were also at increased risk. High frequency ventilation and intracranial hemorrhage were associated with ASD in infants < 34 weeks.
ASD was ∼3 times more prevalent in infants <27 weeks compared with term infants. Each week of shorter gestation was associated with an increased risk of ASD. High frequency ventilation and intracranial hemorrhage were associated with ASD among infants <34 weeks.
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- "These include the type of birth, such as whether it was breech, a prolonged birth, or an induced birth, along with various forms of fetal measures such as birth cry, fetal distress, low heart rate, or high fetal blood pressure [2, 3, 13–15, 60]. Further, a possible association exists with ventilation of neonates . Feeding practices have also been looked at, as well as maternal states such as high temperature or an unhappy maternal emotional state [17–19, 58]. "
ABSTRACT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by severe deficits in social communication and interactions. It is a complex condition that lacks an established preventive method, warranting a need for research to identify possible environmental triggers. The identification of external factors particularly perinatal risk factors forms the initial critical step in preventing and alleviating risks. We conducted a literature review to assess evidence suggested in the worldwide literature. Perinatal risk factors that have a suggested association include íµí»½2 adrenergic receptor agonists, labor induction and augmentation, maternal infection and disease (i.e., antiphospholipid syndrome), antiepileptic drugs, cocaine use, and oral supplements. Smoking has not been found to have a direct association. Pollutants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, artificial insemination, and fertility medications may have a link, but results are often conflicted. Factors related to the delivery room experience may be associated with meconium aspiration syndrome, birth weight, and labor time. Several risk factors during the pregnancy and labor periods have been associated with autism; yet further studies with large populations are needed to establish definitive associations. The fact that several risk factors during the prenatal and labor periods are implicated in autism should prompt the medical community to focus on the pregnancy and labor periods as preventive measures to curb the incidence of autism.International Scholarly Research Notices 10/2014; 2014(Article ID 290837). DOI:10.1155/2014/290837
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ABSTRACT: Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls) completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Fifty-six children (35.7%) screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033) and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042). The screening tool with the most positive results was CSBS-DP-ITC (42 positive screens [PS]), followed by M-CHAT (28 PS), and ITSP (22 PS). Differences in the frequency of PS among the tests were significant (P=0.008). CSBS-DP-ITC had the highest sensitivity (0.846), followed by M-CHAT (0.692) and ITSP (0.462). Our results indicate a higher prevalence of autism in children with birth weights <1,500 g at 2 years of age compared to the general population prevalence. The ASD diagnosis was associated with shorter gestation times and longer hospital stays. Our findings support the simultaneous use of more than one screening tests in order to increase screening sensitivity.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:2201-2208. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S72921 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the past decade, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have both risen in prevalence and become a critical area of research in the field of developmental disabilities. As the body of knowledge about ASD has grown, the overlap of ASD with other problems has also become a rapidly emerging area of study. One of the most studied of these topics is comorbid psychopathology, with depression and mood disorders emerging as one of the more troublesome of these co-occurring conditions. A great deal of research is still needed to determine how best to assess and treat these disorders within the context of ASD. This manuscript reviews current trends and topics relative to this area of study.Research in Developmental Disabilities 09/2014; 35(9):2003–2007. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.04.020 · 3.40 Impact Factor