Validation of Revised American Joint Committee on cancer staging for gallbladder cancer based on a single institution experience

University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California, USA.
The American surgeon (Impact Factor: 0.82). 10/2013; 79(10):1045-9.
Source: PubMed


Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy, which often goes undiagnosed until advanced stages of disease and is associated with poor prognosis. The only potentially curative treatment is surgical resection. This retrospective study aims to investigate the validity of the revised 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria and determine prognostic factors. Forty-two patients with confirmed gallbladder cancer who underwent attempted curative resection from 1999 to 2012 at the University of California, Irvine Medical Center were reviewed. Survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Ten patients underwent laparoscopy, were deemed unresectable, and no further surgical intervention was performed. R0 surgical resection, which included radical portal lymphadenectomy, liver segment IVb/V resection, with or without bile duct resection, was performed in the remaining 32 patients. N2 nodes were resected if positive on frozen section. Overall survival probability for Stage I to II patients was 100 per cent. Overall survival probability for Stage III patients was 80 per cent (95% confidence interval [CI], 61 to 99%) and 39.3 per cent (95% CI, 28 to 78%) for Stage IV patients. This study demonstrates that 7th edition clinical stage, T stage, and liver involvement are statistically significant predictors of prognosis. These data also demonstrate a benefit to extended resection in patients even with Stage III and IV disease.

6 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To discuss some key issues involved in the management of gallbladder cancer (GBC). The decline in incidence and mortality of GBC began decades before the introduction of laparoscopic surgery. In consecutive autopsies and in cases in which cholelithiasis was present, the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma is 3-4%. A number of genetic alterations have been identified in the different stages of GBC and they support the morphological evidence of two pathways by which tumors develop. Some of these genetic changes are associated with particular risk factors. All management of GBC and all comparisons of treatment results from different centers must be based on the stages. Simple cholecystectomy is the adequate treatment for T1a GBC. Lymph node excision improved survival in patients with T2 lesions. Radical en bloc resection of T2 tumors offers greater benefit over conventional cholecystectomy alone in terms of greater long-term survival times. Provided that negative surgical margins are secured, hepatectomy and lymph node resection can, therefore, be withheld in most cases in the surgical treatment of pT2 GBC. With improvements in surgical and anesthetic techniques, aggressive surgery has proven to be performed with safety.
    Current opinion in gastroenterology 03/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000068 · 4.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optimal surgical management of patients with incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) and their long-term survival remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term prognosis of patients with IGBC diagnosed during or after LC. Between January 2002 and January 2012, a total of 7,582 consecutive patients underwent LC for presumed gallbladder benign disease in the Chinese PLA General Hospital, China. Among them, 69 patients (0.91 %) were diagnosed to have IGBC. Their medical records, imaging data, surgery records, pathological findings, and survival data were retrospectively reviewed. Median age was 61 years (range: 34-83). After a median follow-up period of 61 months, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of patients were 89.9, 78.3, and 76.8 %, respectively. The 5-year survival rates of patients with T1a, T1b, T2, and T3 stages were 95.5, 93.8, 69.2, and 44.4 %, respectively. The 5-year survival rates in simple LC (n = 45), converted to open extended cholecystectomy (n = 16), and radical second resection (n = 8) groups were 91.1, 37.5, and 75.0 %, respectively. Local port-site tumor recurrence was identified in one patient. Prognostic factors including depth of invasion, lymph node status, vascular or neural invasion, tumor differentiation, extent of resection, bile spillage, and type of surgery were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Simple LC is appropriate for T1a patients with clear margin and unbroken gallbladder, whereas extended radical resection is recommended for patients with T1b or more advanced IGBC. An intact surgical specimen and the use of plastic retrieval bags are important to reduce the risk of port-site recurrences and disease relapse. Early diagnosis, meticulous perioperative assessment, and precise surgery are essential factors to obtain good results in IGBC treatment.
    World Journal of Surgery 11/2014; 39(3). DOI:10.1007/s00268-014-2864-9 · 2.64 Impact Factor