F11R Is a Novel Monocyte Prognostic Biomarker for Malignant Glioma.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 10/2013; 8(10):e77571. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077571
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Brain tumors (gliomas) contain large populations of infiltrating macrophages and recruited microglia, which in experimental murine glioma models promote tumor formation and progression. Among the barriers to understanding the contributions of these stromal elements to high-grade glioma (glioblastoma; GBM) biology is the relative paucity of tools to characterize infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia. In this study, we leveraged multiple RNA analysis platforms to identify new monocyte markers relevant to GBM patient outcome.
High-confidence lists of mouse resident microglia- and bone marrow-derived macrophage-specific transcripts were generated using converging RNA-seq and microarray technologies and validated using qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Expression of select cell surface markers was analyzed in brain-infiltrating macrophages and resident microglia in an induced GBM mouse model, while allogeneic bone marrow transplantation was performed to trace the origins of infiltrating and resident macrophages. Glioma tissue microarrays were examined by immunohistochemistry, and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was queried to determine the prognostic value of identified microglia biomarkers in human GBM.
We generated a unique catalog of differentially-expressed bone marrow-derived monocyte and resident microglia transcripts, and demonstrated that brain-infiltrating macrophages acquire F11R expression in GBM and following bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, mononuclear cell F11R expression positively correlates with human high-grade glioma and additionally serves as a biomarker for GBM patient survival, regardless of GBM molecular subtype.
These studies establish F11R as a novel monocyte prognostic marker for GBM critical for defining a subpopulation of stromal cells for future potential therapeutic intervention.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether p16, a molecular marker of cellular senescence, and CD68, a microglial marker, are detectible in optic nerve glioma tissue stored for decades, thus providing potential targets for pharmacologic intervention. Cases were retrieved from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Registry of Ophthalmic Pathology. Clinical information was tabulated. In specimens with sufficient tissue, a tissue microarray was constructed to conduct molecular studies. Ninety-two cases were included: gender distribution was in a ratio of one male to 1.6 females, and age range was 2 months to 50 years (average age, 10.8 years). Neurofibromatosis type 1 was identified in 10 cases (10.8%). The majority presented with decreased vision and exophthalmos. Forty-eight cases were studied by a tissue microarray construction. Glial fibrillary acidic protein, a control for immunoreactivity, was positive in 46 cases (96%). Immunoreactivity for p16 protein was seen in 36 cases (75%) and CD68-positive cells in 34 (71%). Limitations include referral bias, limited clinical information, limited amount of tissue, and extended period of tissue preservation. Optic nerve glioma is a tumor of the visual axis in young individuals, which is generally indolent but with a variable clinical course. Traditional histopathologic techniques have not been reliably predictive of clinical course. This microarray contains tumors with representative demographic, clinical, and histologic characteristics for optic nerve glioma. Immunoreactivity for p16 protein and CD68 is positive in the majority. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the variable clinical course and identify therapeutic targets in the cell senescence and microglial pathways.
    Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 07/2014; 112:11-25.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malignant glioma belong to the most aggressive neoplasms in humans with no successful treatment available. Patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the highest-grade glioma, have an average survival time of only around one year after diagnosis. Both microglia and peripheral macrophages/monocytes accumulate within and around glioma, but fail to exert effective anti-tumor activity and even support tumor growth. Here we use microarray analysis to compare the expression profiles of glioma-associated microglia/macrophages and naive control cells. Samples were generated from CD11b<sup>+</sup> MACS-isolated cells from naïve and GL261-implanted C57BL/6 mouse brains. Around 1000 genes were more than 2-fold up- or downregulated in glioma-associated microglia/macrophages when compared to control cells. A comparison with published data sets of M1, M2a,b,c-polarized macrophages revealed a gene expression pattern that has only partial overlap with any of the M1 or M2 gene expression patterns. Sampl
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2-2):e0116644. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116644 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have substantiated the hypothesis that tumor progression is not only driven by the tumor cells themselves but also by their interaction with intrinsic and surrounding stromal cells. Tumor-associated macrophages and microglial cells (TAMs) represent one major stromal cell component of glioblastomas. Additionally, in many gliomas, chemokines are highly expressed and some chemokines were already linked to settlement of TAMs in tumors. However, although chemoattraction mechanisms mediated by chemokines and their receptors are well documented, information on their expression and role in TAMs, particularly in patients, is limited. Therefore, we investigated the transcription of the chemokine-receptor combinations CXCL12-CXCR4-CXCR7, CXCL16-CXCR6 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in freshly isolated TAMs from 20 human glioblastomas in relation to in vitro polarized M1- and M2-macrophages. We demonstrated that TAMs express both M1- and M2-markers. Compared to in vitro polarized macrophages, the M1-marker interleukin (IL)-6 was similarly expressed, whereas IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were found at lower levels. The M2-marker IL-10 was comparably expressed, while CD163 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were detected with one tenth lower intensities in TAMs. All investigated chemokines/receptors were transcribed at moderate to high levels in TAMs as well as in vitro polarized macrophages. However, CX3CR1 was markedly higher and CXCR7 was somewhat higher expressed in TAMs, whereas M2-macrophages were characterized by the highest CXCL12 and a moderate CX3CL1 expression. Collectively, TAMs share properties of M1- and M2-macrophages and show a considerably higher expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR7 and CX3CR1.
    Oncology Reports 05/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.3892/or.2014.3214 · 2.19 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014

Winnie W. Pong