Neuroprotective Sirtuin ratio reversed by ApoE4.
ABSTRACT The canonical pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease links the expression of apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (ApoE) to amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ peptide accumulation by a set of mechanisms that is incompletely defined. The development of a simple system that focuses not on a single variable but on multiple factors and pathways would be valuable both for dissecting the underlying mechanisms and for identifying candidate therapeutics. Here we show that, although both ApoE3 and ApoE4 associate with APP with nanomolar affinities, only ApoE4 significantly (i) reduces the ratio of soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha (sAPPα) to Aβ; (ii) reduces Sirtuin T1 (SirT1) expression, resulting in markedly differing ratios of neuroprotective SirT1 to neurotoxic SirT2; (iii) triggers Tau phosphorylation and APP phosphorylation; and (iv) induces programmed cell death. We describe a subset of drug candidates that interferes with the APP-ApoE interaction and returns the parameters noted above to normal. Our data support the hypothesis that neuronal connectivity, as reflected in the ratios of critical mediators such as sAPPα:Aβ, SirT1:SirT2, APP:phosphorylated (p)-APP, and Tau:p-Tau, is programmatically altered by ApoE4 and offer a simple system for the identification of program mediators and therapeutic candidates.
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ABSTRACT: This report describes a novel, comprehensive, and personalized therapeutic program that is based on the underlying pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and which involves multiple modalities designed to achieve metabolic enhancement for neurodegeneration (MEND). The first 10 patients who have utilized this program include patients with memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), or subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). Nine of the 10 displayed subjective or objective improvement in cognition beginning within 3-6 months, with the one failure being a patient with very late stage AD. Six of the patients had had to discontinue working or were struggling with their jobs at the time of presentation, and all were able to return to work or continue working with improved performance. Improvements have been sustained, and at this time the longest patient follow-up is two and one-half years from initial treatment, with sustained and marked improvement. These results suggest that a larger, more extensive trial of this therapeutic program is warranted. The results also suggest that, at least early in the course, cognitive decline may be driven in large part by metabolic processes. Furthermore, given the failure of monotherapeutics in AD to date, the results raise the possibility that such a therapeutic system may be useful as a platform on which drugs that would fail as monotherapeutics may succeed as key components of a therapeutic system.Aging 09/2014; 6(9):707-17. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As one of the most important hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), β-amyloid (Aβ) plays important roles in inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in neurons. Curcumin extracted from the yellow pigments spice plant turmeric shows multiplied bioactivities such as antioxidant and anti-apoptosis properties in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against Aβ25-35-induced cell death in cultured cortical neurons was investigated. We found that pretreatment of curcumin prevented the cultured cortical neurons from Aβ25-35-induced cell toxicity. In addition, curcumin improved mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), decreased ROS generation and inhibited apoptotic cell death in Aβ25-35 treated neurons. Furthermore, we found that application of curcumin activated the expression of SIRT1 and subsequently decreased the expression of Bax in the presence of Aβ25-35. The protective effect of curcumin was blocked by SIRT1 siRNA. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of SIRT1 is involved in the neuroprotective action of curcumin.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor