Stress ulcer prophylaxis versus placebo or no prophylaxis in critically ill patients

Department of Intensive Care, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Intensive Care Medicine (Impact Factor: 7.21). 10/2013; 40(1). DOI: 10.1007/s00134-013-3125-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the effects of stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) versus placebo or no prophylaxis on all-cause mortality, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and hospital-acquired pneumonia in adult critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
We performed a systematic review using meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA). Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing proton pump inhibitors or histamine 2 receptor antagonists with either placebo or no prophylaxis. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. The Cochrane Collaboration methodology was used. Risk ratios/relative risks (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality, GI bleeding, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.
Twenty trials (n = 1,971) were included; all were judged as having a high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality (fixed effect: RR 1.00, 95 % CI 0.84-1.20; P = 0.87; I (2) = 0 %) or hospital-acquired pneumonia (random effects: RR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.86-1.78; P = 0.28; I (2) = 19 %) between SUP patients and the no prophylaxis/placebo patients. These findings were confirmed in the TSA. With respect to GI bleeding, a statistically significant difference was found in the conventional meta-analysis (random effects: RR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.28-0.68; P = 0.01; I (2) = 48 %); however, TSA (TSA adjusted 95 % CI 0.18-1.11) and subgroup analyses could not confirm this finding.
This systematic review using meta-analysis and TSA demonstrated that both the quality and the quantity of evidence supporting the use of SUP in adult ICU patients is low. Consequently, large randomised clinical trials are warranted.

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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from stress ulcers has decreased within the last 30 years. Improvements in intensive care medicine including advanced equipment for artificial ventilation, better sedoanalgesic therapies, and the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis are credited for the decline. To determine the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on gastric pH in patients exposed to a defined severe stress situation during a specified time period. Prospective open study in a tertiary community hospital. A high dose (80 mg bolus followed by 8 mg/h) of either pantoprazol or omeprazol was infused in 17 patients with opiate dependence who were undergoing ultra-rapid opiate withdrawal by barbiturate anesthesia. Gastric pH. Gastric pH did not change significantly in the majority of patients (mean pH 1.2 ± 0.9 immediately before, 1.5 ± 1.6 at 60 min after, and 1.3 ± 1.5 at 120 min after PPI infusion began). Gastric pH increased temporarily in two of the nine patients receiving omeprazol. In two of the eight patients, pantoprazol led to a late but sustained increase in gastric pH (pH 3.9 and 6.0 at 120 min post infusion). High doses of PPIs are ineffective in elevating gastric pH in patients exposed to severe stress such as ultra-rapid opiate detoxification. Therefore, adequate sedoanalgesia might be the main factor responsible for preventing stress-related bleeding in critically ill patients.
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