To estimate age-related changes for serum concentration of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), describe non-HDL-C distribution, and examine the prevalence of high non-HDL-C levels in children and adolescents by demographic characteristics and weight status.
Data from 7058 participants ages 6-19 years in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed. A high level of non-HDL-C was defined as a non-HDL-C value ≥145mg/dL.
Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing-smoothed curves showed that non-HDL-C levels increased from 101 mg/dL at age 6 to 111 mg/dL at age 10, decreased to 101 mg/dL at age 14, and then increased to 122 mg/dL at age 19 in non-Hispanic white males. Non-HDL-C levels generally were greater in female than male subjects, lower in non-Hispanic black subjects, and similar in male and slightly lower in female Mexican American subjects, compared with non-Hispanic white subjects. The overall mean was 108 (SE 0.5), and the percentiles were 67 (5th), 74 (10th), 87 (25th), 104 (50th), 123 (75th), 145 (90th), and 158 (95th) mg/dL. Mean and percentiles were greater among age groups 9-11 and 17-19 years than others and greater among non-Hispanic white than non-Hispanic black subjects. The prevalence of high non-HDL-C was 11.8% (95% CI 9.9%-14.0%) and 15.0% (95% CI 12.9%-17.3%) for the age groups 9-11 and 17-19, respectively. It varied significantly by race/ethnicity and overweight/obesity status.
Non-HDL-C levels vary by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight classification status. Evaluation of non-HDL-C in youth should account for its normal physiologic patterns and variations in demographic characteristics and weight classification.
"The expert panel proposed two cutoffs to, respectively, classify children with borderline (120e144 mg/dl) and high levels (!145 mg/ dl) of non-HDL-C . Only recently, age-and genderrelated percentiles of non-HDL-C were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009e2010 . While non-HDL-C is recommended as a secondary target in adult subjects treated with statins, or in patients with combined hyperlidemias , diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS) or chronic kidney disease , the usefulness of non HDL-C is less defined in childhood. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and a strong family history of the disease may represent a sub-group where genetic factors play a preeminent role in transmission of the disease. A defect in the liver/islet cell glucose transporter (GluT 2) could explain many of the pathophysiological features of the disease. In order to test the hypothesis that genetic variation at the GluT 2 locus contributes genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes, 60 unrelated Caucasian diabetic patients with at least one affected sibling were genotyped for a Taq 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism marker. Hybridisation with a cDNA GluT 2 probe identified two alleles of sizes 13 kilobase (T1) and 19 kilobase (T2). The allele frequencies in the diabetic group with a family history were significantly different from those in a racially-matched control population of 122 subjects with no personal or family history of the disease (diabetic patients T1 = 0.96, T2 = 0.04, control subjects T1 = 0.89, T2 = 0.11, p less than 0.03). However, when the study was repeated with 54 diabetic patients with indeterminate family history, statistical significance was not reached although the allele frequencies showed a similar trend. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that a genetic variant of the liver/islet cell glucose transporter may contribute to familial susceptibility in Type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis originates as early as childhood, and disparities in rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among children have been previously documented. This review of recently published studies on race/ethnicity-specific burden of risk factors among US children/adolescents highlights the persistent racial/ethnic variations in prevalence of CVD risk factors, with sizeable burdens of CVD risk among all race/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic Black children had the highest rates of high blood pressure and obesity, while Mexican American children had higher diabetes rates and lowest rates of ideal fasting glucose levels. Non-Hispanic White children had lower rates of high blood pressure and higher rates of physical activity, but they experienced higher burdens of adverse lipid levels and cigarette smoking than others. Comprehensive public health policies addressing CVD risk in childhood are needed to lower the future burden of CVD.
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 03/2014; 8(3-3):1-9. DOI:10.1007/s12170-014-0376-7
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