Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies.
ABSTRACT Given its high prevalence and impact on quality of life, more research is needed in identifying factors that may prevent depression. This review examined whether physical activity (PA) is protective against the onset of depression.
A comprehensive search was conducted up until December 2012 in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Data were analyzed between July 2012 and February 2013. Articles were chosen for the review if the study used a prospective-based, longitudinal design and examined relationships between PA and depression over at least two time intervals. A formal quality assessment for each study also was conducted independently by the two reviewers.
The initial search yielded a total of 6363 citations. After a thorough selection process, 30 studies were included for analyses. Among these, 25 studies demonstrated that baseline PA was negatively associated with a risk of subsequent depression. The majority of these studies were of high methodologic quality, providing consistent evidence that PA may prevent future depression. There is promising evidence that any level of PA, including low levels (e.g., walking <150 minutes/weeks), can prevent future depression.
From a population health perspective, promoting PA may serve as a valuable mental health promotion strategy in reducing the risk of developing depression.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose-response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required.The European Journal of Public Health 02/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the association between depressive symptoms and diet quality, physical activity, and body composition among Nova Scotians. Methods 4511 men and women aged 35–69 years were recruited to the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health study from 2009 through 2010 in Nova Scotia, Canada. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Anthropometric indexes and body composition were measured. Current antidepressant use, habitual diet intake, physical activity, and potential confounders were collected through questionnaires. Results In multivariable regression analyses, depressive symptoms were positively associated with all obese indexes after controlling for potential confounders (all P for trend < 0.001). Compared with non-depressed individuals, those with mild and major depression had significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) for both obesity and abdominal obesity (OR 1.84; 95% confidence intervals [CI], (1.50, 2.25) and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.30, 1.87) for obesity and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.20, 1.77) and 1.88 (95% CI, 1.58, 2.24) for abdominal obesity, respectively). Depressed individuals were less likely to have a high quality diet or engage in high levels of physical activity compared with their non-depressed counterparts. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are associated with higher levels of obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity among Nova Scotians in Canada.Preventive Medicine 01/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor