Eliminating mother to child transmission of HIV-1 and keeping mothers alive: Recent progress.
ABSTRACT The elimination of new HIV infections in infants and children is part of a broader global commitment by the United Nations. Prevention of Mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) programmes have prevented 350 000 new HIV infections with the use of antiretroviral therapy (ARVs) for pregnant women who are HIV infected, and the majority of these gains were in sub-Saharan Africa. Coverage of PMTCT programmes throughout Africa is variable resulting in many women not having access to the appropriate interventions in the antenatal care setting to prevent vertical transmission. The global elimination target requires a 90% reduction of new child infections and to decrease MTCT to <5% which potentially can be achieved utilising the four pronged approach proposed by the World Health Organization. Family planning messages and provision of contraception methods to avoid unplanned pregnancies are shown to be more effective than HIV Counselling and Testing [HCT] and single dose Nevirapine in averting transmission of perinatal HIV infection. Child survival goes beyond HIV-free survival and safe breastfeeding prevents 13% of deaths under 5 years of age rendering it essential to reduce under-5 mortality. Health systems strengthening to deliver more complex regimens either for prevention purposes or the mothers own health is an important part of a broader continuum of interventions which will depend on the effective delivery of current treatment modalities, development of new prevention interventions including a vaccine, and include prevention of unplanned pregnancies and primary prevention of HIV infections in the mother.
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ABSTRACT: Background The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program in South Africa is now successful in ensuring HIV-free survival for most HIV-exposed children, but gaps in PMTCT coverage remain. The study objective was to identify missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV using the four PMTCT stages outlined in National Guidelines. Methods This descriptive study enrolled HIV-exposed children who were below the age of 7 years and therefore born during the South African PMTCT era. The study site was in Gauteng, South Africa and enrolment was from June 2009 to May 2010. The clinical history was obtained through a structured caregiver interview and review of medical records and included socio-demographic data, medical history, HIV interventions, infant feeding information and HIV results. The study group was divided into the "single dose nevirapine" ("sdNVP") and "dual-therapy" (nevirapine & zidovudine) groups due to PMTCT program change in February 2008, with subsequent comparison between the groups regarding PMTCT steps during the preconception stage, antenatal care, labor and delivery and postpartum care. Results Two-hundred-and-one HIV-exposed children were enrolled: 137 (68%) children were HIV infected and 64 (32%) were HIV uninfected. All children were born between 2002 and 2009, with 78 (39%) in the "sdNVP" and 123 (61%) in the "dual-therapy" groups. The results demonstrate significant improvements in antenatal HIV testing and PMTCT enrolment, known maternal HIV diagnosis at delivery, mother-infant antiretroviral interventions and infant HIV-diagnosis and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Missed opportunities without improvement include pre-conceptual HIV-services and family planning, tuberculosis screening, HIV disclosure, psychosocial support and postnatal care. Not receiving consistent infant feeding messaging was the only PMTCT component that worsened over time. Conclusions Multiple missed opportunities for optimal PMTCT were identified, which collectively increase children's risk of HIV acquisition. Although HIV-testing and antiretroviral interventions improved, all PMTCT components need to be optimized to reach the goal of total pediatric HIV elimination.BMC Public Health 12/2014; DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1265 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent human studies support historical animal studies that suggested an association between peripheral blood monocyte:lymphocyte(ML) ratio and tuberculosis(TB) disease. To evaluate generalizability of this finding, we modelled the association between peripartum ML ratio and incident TB disease within 18 months postpartum amongst 1202 HIV-infected women in South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. The ML ratio was associated with increased risk of TB disease independently to combination antiretroviral-therapy(cART), WHO stage or CD4 count(HRadjusted=1.22;95%CI 1.07-1.4;p=0.003 per 0.1 unit increase in ML ratio).
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ABSTRACT: Here we present fetal genotoxicity and mitochondrial toxicity, induced by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), in HIV-1-infected pregnant women treated to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, and in virus-free pregnant patas monkeys. In the offspring of pregnant patas monkeys given human-equivalent NRTI protocols, aneuploidy was found in cultured bone marrow cells taken at birth, 1, and 3 years of age. In some newborn human infants, the offspring of HIV-1-infected mothers given zidovudine (AZT) therapy, aneuploidy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, morphologically damaged mitochondria, and reduction in cardiac left ventricular muscle were observed. NRTI-exposed human and patas umbilical cords had similar levels of mtDNA depletion and mitochondrial morphological damage. NRTI-exposed patas offspring showed a compensatory increase in heart mtDNA, and a 50% loss of brain mtDNA at 1 year of age. Mitochondrial morphological damage and mtDNA loss were persistent in blood cells of NRTI-exposed infants up to 2 years of age, and in heart and brain from NRTI-exposed patas up to 3 years of age (human equivalent of 15 years). Whereas use of NRTIs in human pregnancy protects many thousands of children worldwide, some HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers receiving antiretroviral drug therapy sustain toxicities that may have adverse consequences later in life.Current Opinion in Pediatrics 01/2015; 27(2). DOI:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000193 · 2.74 Impact Factor