Energy drinks: cause for concern or scaremongering?

Washington, DC, USA.
BMJ (online) (Impact Factor: 17.45). 10/2013; 347(oct24 2):f6343. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.f6343
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: While data accumulate and discussion evolves on the clinical importance of caffeine addiction and its classification, the growing practices of (i) adding increasing amounts of caffeine to drinks and other consumables, (ii) promoting these as performance enhancers and (iii) targeting youth as the consumer raise concerns that require immediate action.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the association between energy drink use and hazardous alcohol use among a national sample of adolescents and young adults. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of 3342 youth aged 15-23 years recruited for a national survey about media and alcohol use. Energy drink use was defined as recent use or ever mixed-use with alcohol. Outcomes were ever alcohol use and 3 hazardous alcohol use outcomes measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): ever consuming 6 or more drinks at once (6+ binge drinking) and clinical criteria for hazardous alcohol use as defined for adults (8+AUDIT) and for adolescents (4+AUDIT). Results Among 15-17 year olds (n = 1508), 13.3% recently consumed an energy drink, 9.7% ever consumed an energy drink mixed with alcohol, and 47.1% ever drank alcohol. Recent energy drink use predicted ever alcohol use among 15-17-year-olds only (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.77-3.77). Of these 15-17-year-olds, 17% met the 6+ binge drinking criteria, 7.2% met the 8+AUDIT criteria, and 16.0% met the 4+AUDIT criteria. Rates of energy drink use and all alcohol use outcomes increased with age. Ever mixed-use with alcohol predicted 6+ binge drinking (OR 4.69; 95% CI 3.70-5.94), 8+AUDIT (OR 3.25; 95% CI 2.51-4.21), and 4+AUDIT (OR 4.15; 95% CI 3.27-5.25) criteria in adjusted models among all participants, with no evidence of modification by age. Conclusions Positive associations between energy drink use and hazardous alcohol use behaviors are not limited to youth in college settings.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience for television channels with high levels of energy drink advertising airtime. Secondary analysis of energy drink advertising airtime over US network and cable television channels (n = 139) from March, 2012 to February, 2013. Programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in each channel's base audience were extracted from cable television trade reports. Energy drink advertising airtime. Channels were ranked by airtime; programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience were summarized for the 10 channels with the most airtime. Over the study year, 36,501 minutes (608 hours) were devoted to energy drink advertisements; the top 10 channels accounted for 46.5% of such airtime. Programming themes for the top 10 channels were music (n = 3), sports (n = 3), action-adventure lifestyle (n = 2), African American lifestyle (n = 1), and comedy (n = 1). MTV2 ranked first in airtime devoted to energy drink advertisements. Six of the 10 channels with the most airtime included adolescents aged 12-17 years in their base audience. Energy drink manufacturers primarily advertise on channels that likely appeal to adolescents. Nutritionists may wish to consider energy drink media literacy when advising adolescents about energy drink consumption. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 03/2015; 47(2):120-126.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.jneb.2014.11.005 · 1.77 Impact Factor