Overcoming Challenges to Adoption of Shared Medical Appointments
ABSTRACT Abstract Although research has shown many benefits of Shared Medical Appointments (SMAs) or group visits, uptake by physicians has been quite limited. The objective of this study was to explore the facilitators and barriers to implementing SMAs in a large multispecialty medical group. This was a comparative analysis of SMAs at 3 geographically distinct, semiautonomous divisions of the medical group based on qualitative themes identified in audio recorded key informant interviews with medical and administrative staff (n=12) involved with the implementation of SMAs. Data were collected by conducting key informant interviews focusing on the SMA implementation process, including motivations, history, barriers, and facilitators. Uptake at the 3 divisions was predicated by differing motivations, facilitators, and barriers. Divisions 1 and 2 allocated necessary resources including management support, a physician champion, expert consults, and support staff. These divisions also overcame physician reluctance and financial sustainability challenges. Despite early interest, Division 3 did not devote the time or resources to overcome initial resistance. Without the impetus of management mandate or a champion's enthusiasm, early attempts of SMA implementation faltered and were abandoned. In these cases, a physician champion, management support, and financial sustainability were judged to be the primary enablers of successful implementations of SMAs. Without these enablers and other contributing factors, implementing SMAs was challenging. (Population Health Management 2013; XX:XXX-XXX).
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ABSTRACT: This qualitative study was conducted using focus groups to explore the strategies commonly employed by older adults (N = 37) to manage multiple chronic conditions. Key strategies identified were relating with health care providers, medicating, exercising, changing dietary patterns, seeking information, relying on spirituality and/or religion, and engaging in life. Although social support was not mentioned as a discrete strategy, the participants' social networks were embedded in all of the categories. This study supports building a partnership of care in which nurses and other health care professionals function in supportive and educative roles to enhance the older person's lifelong self-care management and ability to stay in control of multiple chronic health conditions.Western Journal of Nursing Research 03/2003; 25(1):8-23; discussion 23-9. DOI:10.1177/0193945902238830 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epidemic proportions and management complexity of diabetes have prompted efforts to improve clinic throughput and efficiency. One method of system redesign based on the chronic care model is the Shared Medical Appointment (SMA) in which groups of patients (8-20) are seen by a multi-disciplinary team in a 1-2 h appointment. Evaluation of the impact of SMAs on quality of care has been limited. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to improve intermediate outcome measures for diabetes (A1c, SBP, LDL-cholesterol) focusing on those patients at highest cardiovascular risk. Primary care clinic at a tertiary care academic medical center. Patients with diabetes with one or more of the following: A1c >9%, SBP blood pressure >160 mm Hg and LDL-c >130 mg/dl were targeted for potential participation; other patients were referred by their primary care providers. Patients participated in at least one SMA from 4/05 to 9/05. Quasi-experimental with concurrent, but non-randomised controls (patients who participated in SMAs from 5/06 through 8/06; a retrospective period of observation prior to their SMA participation was used). SMA system redesign. ANALYTICAL METHODS: Paired and independent t tests, chi(2) tests and Fisher Exact tests. Each group had up to 8 patients. Patients participated in 1-7 visits. At the initial visit, 83.3% had A1c levels >9%, 30.6% had LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl, and 34.1% had SBP >or=160 mm Hg. Levels of A1c, LDL-c and SBP all fell significantly postintervention with a mean (95% CI) decrease of A1c 1.4 (0.8, 2.1) (p<0.001), LDL-c 14.8 (2.3, 27.4) (p = 0.022) and SBP 16.0 (9.7, 22.3) (p<0.001). There were no significant differences at baseline between control and intervention groups in terms of age, baseline intermediate outcomes, or medication use. The reductions in A1c in % and SBP were greater in the intervention group relative to the control group: 1.44 vs -0.30 (p = 0.002) for A1c and 14.83 vs 2.54 mm Hg (p = 0.04) for SBP. LDL-c reduction was also greater in the intervention group, 16.0 vs 5.37 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.29). We were able to initiate a programme of group visits in which participants achieved benefits in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction. Some barriers needed to be addressed, and the operations of SMAs evolved over time. Shared medical appointments for diabetes constitute a practical system redesign that may help to improve quality of care.Quality and Safety in Health Care 11/2007; 16(5):349-53. DOI:10.1136/qshc.2006.019158 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Incorporating shared medical appointments (SMAs) or group visits into clinical practice to improve care and increase efficiency has become a popular intervention, but the processes to implement and sustain them have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of implementation of SMAs in the local context of a primary care clinic over time. The setting was a primary care clinic of an urban academic medical center of the Veterans Health Administration. We performed an in-depth case analysis utilizing both an innovations framework and a nested systems framework approach. This analysis helped organize and summarize implementation and sustainability issues, specifically: the pre-SMA local context; the processes of tailoring and implementation of the intervention; and the evolution and sustainability of the intervention and its context. Both the improvement intervention and the local context co-adapted and evolved during implementation, ensuring sustainability. The most important promoting factors were the formation of a core team committed to quality and improvement, and the clinic leadership that was supported strongly by the team members. Tailoring had to also take into account key innovation-hindering factors, including limited resources (such as space), potential to alter longstanding patient-provider relationships, and organizational silos (disconnected groups) with core team members reporting to different supervisors. Although interventions must be designed to meet the needs of the sites in which they are implemented, specific guidance tailored to the practice environment was lacking. SMAs require complex changes that impact on care routines, collaborations, and various organizational levels. Although the SMA was not envisioned originally as a form of system redesign that would alter the context in which it was implemented, it became clear that tailoring the intervention alone would not ensure sustainability, and therefore adjustments to the system were required. The innovation necessitated reconfiguring some aspects of the primary care clinic itself and other services from which the patients and the team were derived. In addition, the relationships among different parts of the system were altered.Implementation Science 02/2008; 3(1):34. DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-3-34 · 3.47 Impact Factor