Article

An update on the recent literature on sickle cell bone disease.

Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and The Department of Pediatrics Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity (Impact Factor: 3.77). 10/2013; DOI: 10.1097/01.med.0000436192.25846.0b
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To summarize the findings of the recent publications on sickle cell bone disease (SBD).
Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) are living longer and develop progressive organ damage including SBD with age. Recent studies suggest alternative radiological diagnostics such as ultrasound and scintigraphy can detect and differentiate between different forms of SBD. MRI with or without diffusion-weighted sequences remains the gold standard. Case reports of cranio-orofacial SBD highlight the rarity of this presentation. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent at all ages, but may not be an independent risk factor for avascular necrosis (AVN). Gene polymorphisms of the Annexin A gene may predict AVN in SCD. A recent study demonstrated reduced days with pain and improved physical activity quality of life following high-dose vitamin D therapy. The high rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis in SCD support the need for research addressing this rising public health problem. Lastly, results of total hip arthroplasty for AVN in SCD has improved significantly over time with the use of cementless prosthetic material and improved supportive care.
SBD remains poorly studied. Prospective randomized studies targeting predictors, diagnostics, prevention, and treatment options for SBD are sorely needed.

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