An update on the recent literature on sickle cell bone disease
ABSTRACT To summarize the findings of the recent publications on sickle cell bone disease (SBD).
Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) are living longer and develop progressive organ damage including SBD with age. Recent studies suggest alternative radiological diagnostics such as ultrasound and scintigraphy can detect and differentiate between different forms of SBD. MRI with or without diffusion-weighted sequences remains the gold standard. Case reports of cranio-orofacial SBD highlight the rarity of this presentation. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent at all ages, but may not be an independent risk factor for avascular necrosis (AVN). Gene polymorphisms of the Annexin A gene may predict AVN in SCD. A recent study demonstrated reduced days with pain and improved physical activity quality of life following high-dose vitamin D therapy. The high rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis in SCD support the need for research addressing this rising public health problem. Lastly, results of total hip arthroplasty for AVN in SCD has improved significantly over time with the use of cementless prosthetic material and improved supportive care.
SBD remains poorly studied. Prospective randomized studies targeting predictors, diagnostics, prevention, and treatment options for SBD are sorely needed.
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ABSTRACT: To compare the effect of aquatic and land-based physiotherapy in reducing musculoskeletal hip and lower back pain and increasing overall physical capabilities of sickle cell disease patients.Methods Informed written consent was obtained from all volunteers who were submitted to evaluations using different functional scales: Lequesne's Algofunctional Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index, trunk and hip range of motion, goniometry, trunk and hip muscle strength assessment using load cell, and surface electromyography of the iliocostalis, long dorsal (longissimus), gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and tensor fasciae latae muscles. Ten patients were randomized into two groups: aquatic physiotherapy with a mean age of 42 years (range: 25–67) and conventional physiotherapy with a mean age of 49 years (range: 43–59). Both groups were submitted to a twelve-week program of two sessions weekly.ResultsAfter intervention, significant improvements were observed regarding the Lequesne index (p-value = 0.0217), Oswestry Disability Index (p-value = 0.0112), range of motion of trunk extension (p-value = 0.0320), trunk flexion muscle strength (p-value = 0.0459), hip extension and abduction muscle strength (p-value = 0.0062 and p-value = 0.0257, respectively). Range of motion of trunk and hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, trunk extensor muscle strength and all surface electromyography variables showed no significant statistical difference.Conclusion Physical therapy is efficient to treat musculoskeletal dysfunctions in sickle cell disease patients, irrespective of the technique; however, aquatic therapy showed a trend toward improvement in muscle strength. Further studies with a larger patient sample and longer periods of therapy are necessary to confirm these results.Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia 11/2014; 37(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bjhh.2014.11.010