• Psychophysiology 12/1979; 16(6):495-512. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A critical examination is made of some behavioristic conceptualizations and treatments of chronic anxiety which are mostly based on a classically-conditioned fear model. A new model is proposed wherein it is assumed that tonic emotional states such as anxiety are more based on instrumental conditioning. This model has been successfully tested in experiments with monkeys. Questions remain about the relevance of this model with regard to the natural actual life etiology of these disorders.
    International Journal of Psychology 01/1981; 16:371-387. · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Examined the relations of causal attributions and affect to judgments of help-giving in a total of 280 undergraduates in 6 experiments. The influence of 3 dimensions of causality (locus, stability, and control) on judgments concerning the lending of class notes was evaluated. Ratings of help were lowest when the cause of the need was internal to the actor and controllable (e.g., lack of effort). It is suggested that ascriptions to internal controllable factors maximized negative affect (disgust and anger) and promoted avoidance behavior. However, attributions to uncontrollable factors (e.g., ability or teacher shortcomings) were anticipated to generate positive affect (sympathy) and give rise to approach behavior (help). These hypotheses and an attributional model of helping were investigated using a simulational judgment paradigm with both correlational and experimental designs and scenarios describing a drunk or a disabled individual in need of aid. ANOVA indicated the existence of a temporal sequence of attribution-affect-action in which attributions guide feelings, but emotional reactions provide the motor and direction for behavior. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 07/1980; 39(2):186-200. · 5.08 Impact Factor


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Jun 2, 2014