Diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis in children in the era of intensified control.
ABSTRACT In the current era of intensified and integrated control against schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases, there is a need to carefully rethink and take into consideration disease-specific issues pertaining to the diagnosis, prevention, control and local elimination. Here, we present a comprehensive overview about schistosomiasis including recent trends in the number of people treated with praziquantel and the latest developments in diagnosis and control. Particular emphasis is placed on children. Identified research needs are offered for consideration; namely, expanding our knowledge about schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children, assessing and quantifying the impact of schistosomiasis on infectious and noncommunicable diseases, developing new antischistosomal drugs and child-friendly formulations, designing and implementing setting-specific control packages and developing highly sensitive, but simple diagnostic tools that are able to detect very light infections in young children and in people living in areas targeted for schistosomiasis elimination.
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ABSTRACT: Treatment and morbidity control of schistosomiasis relies on a single drug, praziquantel. Hence, there is a pressing need to develop additional therapeutics against schistosomiasis. The antimalarial drug mefloquine shows antischistosomal activity in animal models and clinical trials, which calls for further investigations.PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 07/2014; 8(7):e2975.
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ABSTRACT: Helminth infections are responsible for a considerable public health burden, yet the current drug armamentarium is small. Given the high cost of drug discovery and development, the high failure rates and the long duration to develop novel treatments, drug repurposing circumvents these obstacles by finding new uses for compounds other than those they were initially intended to treat. In the present review, we summarize in vivo and clinical trial findings testing clinical candidates and marketed drugs against schistosomes, food-borne trematodes, soil-transmitted helminths, Strongyloides stercoralis, the major human filariases lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, taeniasis, neurocysticercosis and echinococcosis. While expanding the applications of broad-spectrum or veterinary anthelmintics continues to fuel alternative treatment options, antimalarials, antibiotics, antiprotozoals and anticancer agents appear to be producing fruitful results as well. The trematodes and nematodes continue to be most investigated, while cestodal drug discovery will need to be accelerated. The most clinically advanced drug candidates include the artemisinins and mefloquine against schistosomiasis, tribendimidine against liver flukes, oxantel pamoate against trichuriasis, and doxycycline against filariasis. Preclinical studies indicate a handful of promising future candidates, and are beginning to elucidate the broad-spectrum activity of some currently used anthelmintics. Challenges and opportunities are further discussed.International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance. 12/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Chronic infection with Schistosoma japonicum is an important cause of hepatic fibrosis (HF). Human 9q33.3 is one of the most important loci for stress-related diseases. We examined the potential associations of 43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with S. japonicum infection and HF in epidemic region in China. We identified a SNP (rs10118570 GG in mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1, MAPKAP1) contributes to anti-infection (adjusted OR = 0.35) and anti-fibrogenesis (adjusted RR = 0.44) in the discovery study. Replicative and combined studies showed consistent protective quality for this genotype (replicative: adjusted OR = 0.37 for anti-infection, and adjusted RR = 0.40 for anti-fibrogenesis; Combined: adjusted OR = 0.45 for anti-infection, and adjusted RR = 0.42 for anti-fibrogenesis). Univariate and multivariate analysis in the discovery, replicative and combined studies, suggested that durations (years), splenomegaly, serum ALB and rs10118570 were independent predictors influencing the fibrogenesis. The analysis of gene-gene interaction showed rs10118570 functions independently. We conclude that MAPKAP1 may represent a novel anti-infection and anti-fibrogenesis genomic locus in chronic schistosomiasis japonica. And rs10118570 may be a potential biomarker and target for the treatment of this life-threatening ancient disease.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105995. · 3.53 Impact Factor
Soeren Leif Becker