PKM2 Isoform-Specific Deletion Reveals a Differential Requirement for Pyruvate Kinase in Tumor Cells.
ABSTRACT The pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) is expressed in cancer and plays a role in regulating anabolic metabolism. To determine whether PKM2 is required for tumor formation or growth, we generated mice with a conditional allele that abolishes PKM2 expression without disrupting PKM1 expression. PKM2 deletion accelerated mammary tumor formation in a Brca1-loss-driven model of breast cancer. PKM2 null tumors displayed heterogeneous PKM1 expression, with PKM1 found in nonproliferating tumor cells and no detectable pyruvate kinase expression in proliferating cells. This suggests that PKM2 is not necessary for tumor cell proliferation and implies that the inactive state of PKM2 is associated with the proliferating cell population within tumors, whereas nonproliferating tumor cells require active pyruvate kinase. Consistent with these findings, variable PKM2 expression and heterozygous PKM2 mutations are found in human tumors. These data suggest that regulation of PKM2 activity supports the different metabolic requirements of proliferating and nonproliferating tumor cells. PAPERCLIP:
SourceAvailable from: Edward Sanders[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many cancers adopt a metabolism that is characterized by the well-known Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis). Recently, numerous attempts have been made to treat cancer by targeting one or more gene products involved in this pathway without notable success. This work outlines a transcriptomic approach to identify genes that are highly perturbed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). We developed a model of the extended Warburg effect and outlined the model using Cytoscape. Following this, gene expression fold changes (FCs) for tumor and adjacent normal tissue from patients with CCRCC (GSE6344) were mapped on to the network. Gene expression values with FCs of greater than two were considered as potential targets for treatment of CCRCC. The Cytoscape network includes glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), the TCA cycle, the serine/glycine pathway, and partial glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis pathways. Gene expression FCs for nine of the 10 CCRCC patients in the GSE6344 data set were consistent with a shift to aerobic glycolysis. Genes involved in glycolysis and the synthesis and transport of lactate were over-expressed, as was the gene that codes for the kinase that inhibits the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. Interestingly, genes that code for unique proteins involved in gluconeogenesis were strongly under-expressed as was also the case for the serine/glycine pathway. These latter two results suggest that the role attributed to the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), frequently the principal isoform of PK present in cancer: i.e. causing a buildup of glucose metabolites that are shunted into branch pathways for synthesis of key biomolecules, may not be operative in CCRCC. The fact that there was no increase in the expression FC of any gene in the PPP is consistent with this hypothesis. Literature protein data generally support the transcriptomic findings. A number of key genes have been identified that could serve as valid targets for anti-cancer pharmaceutical agents. Genes that are highly over-expressed include ENO2, HK2, PFKP, SLC2A3, PDK1, and SLC16A1. Genes that are highly under-expressed include ALDOB, PKLR, PFKFB2, G6PC, PCK1, FBP1, PC, and SUCLG1.01/2015; 2(2):151-86.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) are important enzymes of glycolysis. Both of them can be phosphorylated and therefore regulated by Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). While phosphorylation of LDHA at tyrosine10 leads to tetramerization and activation, phosphorylation of PKM2 at tyrosine105 promotes dimerization and inactivation. Dimeric PKM2 is found in the nucleus and regulates gene transcription. Up-regulation and phosphorylation of LDHA and PKM2 contribute to faster proliferation under hypoxic conditions and promote the Warburg effect. Using western blot and SYBR Green Real time PCR we investigated 77 thyroid tissues including 19 goiter tissues, 11 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular carcinomas, 15 papillary thyroid carcinomas, and 16 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas for total expression of PKM2, LDHA and FGFR1. Additionally, phosphorylation status of PKM2 and LDHA was analysed. Inhibition of FGFR was performed on FTC133 cells with SU-5402 and Dovitinib. All examined thyroid cancer subtypes overexpressed PKM2 as compared to goiter. LDHA was overexpressed in follicular and papillary thyroid cancer as compared to goiter. Elevated phosphorylation of LDHA and PKM2 was detectable in all analysed cancer subtypes. The highest relative phosphorylation levels of PKM2 and LDHA compared to overall expression were found in undifferentiated thyroid cancer. Inhibition of FGFR led to significantly decreased phosphorylation levels of PKM2 and LDHA. Our data shows that overexpression and increased phosphorylation of PKM2 and LHDA is a common finding in thyroid malignancies. Phospho-PKM2 and Phospho-LDHA could be valuable tumour markers for thyroglobulin negative thyroid cancer.BMC Cancer 03/2015; 15(1):1135. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1135-y · 3.32 Impact Factor
Article: Pyruvate kinase M2 at a glance[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reprogrammed metabolism is a key feature of cancer cells. The pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform, which is commonly upregulated in many human cancers, has been recently shown to play a crucial role in metabolism reprogramming, gene transcription and cell cycle progression. In this Cell Science at a glance article and accompanying poster, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PKM2 expression, enzymatic activity, metabolic functions and subcellular location. We highlight the instrumental role of the non-metabolic functions of PKM2 in tumorigenesis and evaluate the potential to target PKM2 for cancer treatment.Journal of Cell Science 03/2015; DOI:10.1242/jcs.166629 · 5.33 Impact Factor