Comparisons of spot vs 24-h urine samples for estimating population salt intake: Validation study in two independent samples of adults in Britain and Italy.

University of Warwick, W.H.O. Collaborating Centre for Nutrition, Warwick Medical School, Division of Mental Health & Wellbeing, Coventry, UK.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD (Impact Factor: 3.88). 10/2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.06.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the reliability and reproducibility of estimations of group mean 24-h urinary sodium (Na) excretion through timed spot urines compared to 24 h urinary Na output in two independent cross-sectional population samples including men and women and different ethnic groups.
Study 1 was carried out in Britain and included 915 untreated 40-59 yrs male and female participants (297 white, 326 of black African origin and 292 South Asian). Study 2 was carried out in Italy and included 148 white men (mean age 58.3 yrs). All participants provided both a 24-h urine collection and a timed urine sample as part of population surveys. Na, creatinine (Cr) and volume (V) were measured in all samples. Age, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were also measured. We compared the daily Na excretion through 24-h urine (gold standard) with its estimate from timed urine samples with two methods: Tanaka's predictions and Arithmetic extrapolations, and assessed them with correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plot, prediction of quintile position and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Areas Under the Curve (AUC) for a cut-off of <100 mmol of Na/day. In Study 1 (discovery study) with the Tanaka method there were poor correlations between predicted and measured 24-h Na excretions in different ethnic groups and genders (rSpearman from 0.055 [R(2) = 0.003] in black women to 0.330 [R(2) = 0.11] in white women). The Bland-Altman plots indicated consistent bias with overestimate for low and underestimate for high intakes. ROC AUCs varied from 0.521 to 0.652 with good sensitivity (95-100%) but very poor specificity (0-9%). With the Arithmetic extrapolations correlations varied from 0.116 [R(2) = 0.01] to 0.367 [R(2) = 0.13]. Bias was detected with both Bland-Altman plots and through quintile analyses (underestimate at low levels and overestimate at high levels). Finally, ROC AUCs varied from 0.514 to 0.640 with moderate sensitivity (64-70%) but low specificity (20-53%). In Study 2 (validation study) results were consistent with the discovery phase in white men.
Based on these results, 24-h urinary collection for the measurement of Na excretion remains the preferred tool for assessing salt intake when compared with reported methods based on timed spot urine samples.

Download full-text


Available from: Francesco Cappuccio, Dec 21, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The impact of the national salt reduction programme in the UK on social inequalities is unknown. We examined spatial and socioeconomic variations in salt intake in the 2008-2011 British National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) and compared them with those before the programme in 2000-2001.
    BMJ Open 08/2014; 4(8):e005683. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005683 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 10/2013; 34(4):283-283. · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies that reported an association of dietary Na(+) intake with metabolic syndrome were limited by the use of imprecise measures of obesity, Na(+) intake, or exclusion of multiethnic populations. The effect of dietary K(+) intake on obesity is less well described. We hypothesized that high dietary Na(+) and low K(+), based on the ratio of urinary Na(+) to K(+) (U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]) in a first-void morning urinary sample, is independently associated with total body fat. In a prospective population-based cohort, 2782 participants in the community-dwelling, probability-sampled, multiethnic Dallas Heart Study were analyzed. The primary outcome established a priori was total-body percentage fat (TBPF) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The main predictor was U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]. Robust linear regression was used to explore an independent association between U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] and TBPF. The analyses were stratified by sex and race after their effect modifications were analyzed. Of the cohort, 55.4% were female, 49.8% African American, 30.8% white, 17.2% Hispanic, and 2.2% other races. The mean (±SD) age was 44 ± 10 y, BMI (in kg/m(2)) was 30 ± 7, TBPF was 32 ± 10%, and U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] was 4.2 ± 2.6; 12% had diabetes. In the unadjusted and adjusted models, TBPF increased by 0.75 (95% CI: 0.25, 1.25) and 0.43 (0.15, 0.72), respectively (P = 0.003 for both), for every 3-unit increase in U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]. A statistically significant interaction was found between race and U[Na(+)] /[K(+)], so that the non-African American races had a higher TBPF than did the African Americans per unit increase in U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] (P-interaction < 0.0001 for both). No interaction was found between sex and U[Na(+)]/[K(+)]. The ratio of dietary Na(+) to K(+) intake may be independently associated with TBPF, and this association may be more pronounced in non-African Americans. Future studies should explore whether easily measured spot U[Na(+)]/[K(+)] can be used to monitor dietary patterns and guide strategies for obesity management.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2014; 99(5). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.077362 · 6.92 Impact Factor