Intramedullary nailing for treatment of pathologic femoral fractures due to metastases
ABSTRACT Pathologic fractures of the femur because of bone metastases seriously affect the quality of life of cancer patients. Different surgical options are indicated to achieve a durable and solid fixation, depending on several clinical, prognostic and mechanical factors. Locked intramedullary nailing is currently used to treat pathologic femoral fractures in patients with multiple metastases when the trochanteric region or shaft is mainly involved. This study evaluates intramedullary nailing for treatment of patients with pathologic femoral fractures, focussing on complications, clinical and functional outcomes and survival rates. The series included 80 pathologic fractures treated with a titanium alloy Proximal Nail (Standard or Antirotation) or Lateral Anterograde Femoral Nail (PFN, PFNA or LAFN, Synthes) inserted in a locked static mode. Acrylic cement was used to fill the bone cavity after nail insertion in eight patients; percutaneous cementoplasty was simultaneously performed in 11 cases of severe ipsilateral acetabular osteolysis. Postoperative outcomes focussed on pain relief, postoperative mobility and quality of life and they were analysed retrospectively using QOL-ACD and ECOG. Eleven patients (13.75%) suffered from non-fatal DVT post-surgery, with no pulmonary embolism. Six patients (7.5%) developed superficial wound infections and two patients (2.5%) developed pnaeumonia. There was no loss of reduction, breakage, screw pull out, or hardware or implant failure that required component substitution or revision. Lung histotype and the contemporary presence of cerebral and visceral metastases appeared to be predisposing factors in reducing survival time. All patients attained satisfactory pain relief, early deambulation and a marked clinical improvement during the first 6-10 postoperative months, with gradual worsening thereafter from deterioration of their general condition due to cancer progression. The patients' survival rate was 40% at 1 year, 25% at 2 years and 15% at 3 years. Results confirm that multiple factors related to patients and primary cancer may affect survival rate after femoral fracture. Intramedullary nailing should be indicated for pathologic fractures at femoral diaphysis and metaphysis when cancer is in an advanced stage. This procedure offers good and durable stability, and enables pain relief, early postoperative mobilisation and weight-bearing, thus improving the quality of life of cancer patients.
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ABSTRACT: The concept of impending fracture has been developed to help address this difficult skeletal-related problem. There is no consensus on the subject in the literature and a specific definition of impending fracture has not been outlined.Injury 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2014.10.038 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastases are the most common malignancies involving bone; breast, prostate, lung and thyroid are the main sites of primary cancer. However, up to 30 % of patients present with bone metastases of unknown origin, where the site of the primary neoplasm cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis despite a thorough history, physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing and modern imaging technology (CT, MRI, PET). Sometimes only extensive histopathological investigations on bone specimens from biopsy can suggest the primary malignancy. At other times, a bone lesion can have such a highly undifferentiated histological appearance that a precise pathological classification on routine hematoxylin-eosin-stained section is not possible. The authors reviewed the relevant literature in an attempt to investigate the epidemiology of the histological primaries finally identified in patients with bone metastases from occult cancer, and a strategy of management and treatment of bone metastases from occult carcinomas is suggested. Lung, liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract are common sites for primary occult tumors. Adenocarcinoma is the main histological type, accounting for 70 % of all cases, while undifferentiated cancer accounts for 20 %. Over the past 30 years, lung cancer is the main causative occult primary for bone metastases and has a poor prognosis with an average survival of 4-8 months. Most relevant literature focuses on the need for standardized diagnostic workup, as surgery for bone lesions should be aggressive only when they are solitary and/or the occult primaries have a good prognosis; in these cases, identification of the primary tumor may be important and warrants special diagnostic efforts. However, in most cases, the primary site remains unknown, even after autopsy. Thus, orthopedic surgery has a mainly palliative role in preventing or stabilizing pathological fractures, relieving pain and facilitating the care of the patient in an attempt to provide the most appropriate therapy for the primary tumor as soon as possible. 5.Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology 03/2015; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s10195-015-0344-0
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