Factores psicosociales implicados en el control de la hipertensión arterial

Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Psicología Clínica, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, España
Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular 04/2012; 29(2):44–49. DOI: 10.1016/j.hipert.2011.12.002


High blood pressure or hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, whose high prevalence and the ability to be modified by therapeutic intervention, make it a major public health challenge. Hypertension is a multifactorial health problem, involving three large categories of factors: classical biological factors, behavioral risk factors (diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and exercise) and psychological factors. Psychological factors include both the effects of stress on the cardiovascular system and personality factors (hostility and anger) and negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depression.

Download full-text


Available from: Jesús Sanz, Oct 02, 2015
150 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial characteristics predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, the authors discussed human and animal research on psychophysiological mechanisms influencing coronary artery disease and its progression to CHD. They then reviewed literature on personality and characteristics of the social environment as risk factors for CHD. Hostility confers increased risk, and a group of risk factors involving depression and anxiety may be especially important following myocardial infarction. Social isolation, interpersonal conflict, and job stress confer increased risk. Psychosocial interventions may have beneficial effects on CHD morbidity and mortality, although inconsistent results and a variety of methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. Finally, they discussed implications for clinical care and the agenda for future research.
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 07/2002; 70(3):548-68. DOI:10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.548 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Only one-third of patients with hypertension under pharmacological treatment achieve the recommended blood pressure goals. Psychological factors could partially account for poor hypertension control through the existence of personality traits related to treatment compliance (e.g., self-discipline, deliberation, impulsiveness), and the fact that stress and some personality traits (e.g., anxiety, depression, anger expression, Type A) are involved in the etiology of some hypertension cases. This study was aimed at examining the differences in personality and stress between patients taking antihypertensive medications with controlled and uncontrolled hypertension. Results revealed that after controlling sex, age, and traditional variables associated with poor hypertension control, the uncontrolled hypertension group showed higher scores on impulsiveness, depression, anger expression-out, and stress, with differences ranging between medium and large (Hedges' g effect size = 0.77 to 1.08). These results support the hypothesized relationship between psychological factors and poor hypertension control.
    Psychological Reports 12/2010; 107(3):923-38. DOI:10.2466/09.15.20.PR0.107.6.923-938 · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular responses occur not only in the immediate presence of stressors, but also while later thinking about those experiences. Evidence suggests that these delayed responses, such as those produced by ruminating about prior angering experiences, may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. We examine whether physiological consequences of rumination depend on the delay between a stressor and its recall, and whether the magnitude of physiological responses decreases with repetition. Twenty-two participants experienced a three-minute harassment stressor, and later spent 3 min vividly recalling the task. Half the subjects returned for the first time after a week, and half returned after half an hour, and then also after a week. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during a baseline period, and during each session's stressor or rumination period. Results indicated that rumination was sufficient to elevate blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) above baseline, that the delay made no difference to the magnitude of the elevation, but that the second rumination seemed to be associated with a smaller response than the first. Response to the stressor was not associated with rumination responses, but the first rumination response was significantly correlated with the second. The effects of stress may be experienced long after the actual stressor is passed, and people who experience large delayed responses may not be the same as those with high initial responses. The "hot" affective portion of rumination may not be diminished by the passage of time, but by prior recreation of the experience.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 12/2007; 66(2):135-40. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2007.03.018 · 2.88 Impact Factor
Show more