Anales de Pediatría 03/2010; 72(3):220.e1–220.e20. DOI: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2009.11.010
Acute gastroenteritis (AG) morbidity and mortality rates in infants and prescholars continue to be high in developing countries. Authors want to develop an evidence-based document that supports decision making regarding AG therapy in infants and children younger than 5 y/o. A systematic review of the literature was performed (May, 2008). Evidence grading was established according to Oxford guidelines and Latin American experts submitted their opinions on the recommendations generated.Oral rehydration solutions are the threatment's keystone for children with AG, showing lesser complications due to therapy than IV fluids. AG is no contraindication of a normal diet. Racecadotril, zinc and smectite can contribute to AG treatment, as well as Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomycces boulardii. No other drugs are recommended. It is recommended to treat children presenting AG with oral rehydration solutions among racecadotril, zinc or smectite as well as some probiotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around two million child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization and UNICEF.
To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea.
In February 2012, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists. We also contacted researchers.
Randomized controlled trials comparing oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery.
Both authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. Diarrhoea duration and severity were the primary outcomes. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using the fixed- or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity.The quality of evidence has been assessed using the GRADE methods
Twenty-four trials, enrolling 9128 children, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the data is from Asia, from countries at high risk of zinc deficiency, and may not be applicable elsewhere.Acute diarrhoeaThere is currently not enough evidence from well conducted randomized controlled trials to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or hospitalization (very low quality evidence).In children aged greater than six months with acute diarrhoea, zinc supplementation may shorten the duration of diarrhoea by around 10 hours (MD -10.44 hours, 95% CI -21.13 to 0.25; 2091 children, five trials, low quality evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.88; 3865 children, six trials, moderate quality evidence). In children with signs of moderate malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around 27 hours (MD -26.98 hours, 95% CI -14.62 to -39.34; 336 children, three trials, high quality evidence).Conversely, In children aged less than six months, the available evidence suggests zinc supplementation may have no effect on mean diarrhoea duration (MD 5.23 hours, 95% CI -4.00 to 14.45; 1334 children, two trials, low quality evidence), and may even increase the proportion of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.54; 1074 children, one trial, moderate quality evidence).No trials reported serious adverse events, but zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea causes vomiting in both age groups (RR 1.59, 95% 1.27 to 1.99; 5189 children, 10 trials, high quality evidence).Persistent diarrhoeaIn children with persistent diarrhoea, zinc supplementation probably shortens the duration of diarrhoea by around 16 hours (MD -15.84 hours, 95% CI -25.43 to -6.24; 529 children, five trials, moderate quality evidence).
In areas where the prevalence of zinc deficiency or the prevalence of moderate malnutrition is high, zinc may be of benefit in children aged six months or more.The current evidence does not support the use of zinc supplementation in children below six months of age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract:
Introduction: Ondansetron reduces hospitalization rates for diarrhea and vomiting in children, but is not yet routinely used.
Objective: To estimate from a social perspective the relative cost-effectiveness of ondansetron for the treatment of vomiting in children with gastroenteritis and at risk of dehydration in Colombia
Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis from a social perspective, including direct medical costs and costs for caregivers. With a decision tree we compared costs and health outcomes of usual treatment without antiemetic to usual treatment plus ondansetron in children under 5 years with gastroenteritis and vomiting. Effectiveness of intervention was measured as reduction in hospitalization rates, and the time horizon of the model was the episode. Probabilities were obtained from clinical trials and systematic reviews, measurement of resources use was based on protocols and expert opinion, while unit costs were obtained from Colombian tariff manuals. We performed a survey to estimate indirect costs for caregivers (n=81) that included questions about wage loss, transportation, meals expenditures and other out-of-pocket payments. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.
Results: Usual treatment plus ondansetron is a dominant strategy compared to usual treatment without antiemetic yielding fewer hospitalizations and saving $44.562 Colombian pesos (23,98USD) per episode. Ondansetron was dominant in 98,91% of simulations of the probabilistic analysis.
Conclusions: Ondansetron is a dominant intervention that reduces hospitalization rates and costs for health system and caregivers. We recommend assessing the inclusion of this drug in the Colombian Health Benefit Plan for the treatment of gastroenteritis in children under 5 years.
Keywords: Ondansetron, cost-effectiveness, Colombia, vomiting, diarrhea, hospitalization, gastroenteritis, children
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