What is the Best Test for Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S.A.
The Laryngoscope (Impact Factor: 2.14). 12/2013; 123(12). DOI: 10.1002/lary.23656
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: There continues to be significant controversy related to diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Clearly, barium contrast fluoroscopy is superior to any other test in defining the anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. Although fluoroscopy can demonstrate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), this observation does not equate to GERD. Fluoroscopy time should not be prolonged to attempt to demonstrate GER during barium contrast radiography. There are no data to justify prolonging fluoroscopy time to perform provocative maneuvers to demonstrate reflux during barium contrast UGI series. Symptoms of GERD may be associated with physiologic esophageal acid exposure measured by intraesophageal pH monitoring, and a significant percentage of patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure have no or minimal clinical symptoms of reflux. Abnormal acid exposure defined by pH monitoring over a 24-h period does not equate to GERD. In clinical practice presumptive diagnosis of GERD is reasonably assumed by substantial reduction or elimination of suspected reflux symptoms during therapeutic trial of acid reduction therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between gastric emptying and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in infants and children. One hundred eight patients (pts) between 3 months and 5 years of age (77 boys, 31 girls) with clinical suspicion of GER disease were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the age range: group A, 0-2 years (57 pts), and group B, 2-5 (51 pts) years. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the scintigraphic study as GER-positive and -negative. Cow's milk with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as radiotracer was used. Gastric emptying was expressed as the half emptying time (T1/2). The detection of activity in the esophagus at any time during scintigraphy was considered an indicator of GER episodes. Reflux episodes were graded as grade 1 if activity was detected on one or 2 frames and grade 2 if activity was detected on more than 2 frames. Forty of the 108 patients (37%) had GER findings on scintigraphy. The comparison of gastric emptying time between positive GER scintigraphy and negative GER scintigraphy groups was not statistically significant in any age group. No association was found between age and rate of gastric emptying time. Although the comparison of T1/2 between grade 1 patients and the GER-negative group was not statistically significant, grade 2 patients showed significant differences and had prolonged gastric emptying times. Mild statistical correlation between the number of reflux episodes and gastric emptying half time was found. As a conclusion, the relation between gastroesophageal reflux and delayed gastric emptying cannot be ignored. Our results support delayed gastric emptying to be a pathogenetic factor in gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children.
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) international consensus on the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the pediatric population. An international panel of 9 pediatric gastroenterologists and 2 epidemiologists were selected by both societies, which developed these guidelines based on the Delphi principle. Statements were based on systematic literature searches using the best-available evidence from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies. The committee convened in face-to-face meetings 3 times. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations through nominal group technique, a structured, quantitative method. Articles were evaluated using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence. Using the Oxford Grades of Recommendation, the quality of evidence of each of the recommendations made by the committee was determined and is summarized in appendices. More than 600 articles were reviewed for this work. The document provides evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the pediatric population. This document is intended to be used in daily practice for the development of future clinical practice guidelines and as a basis for clinical trials.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2009; 49(4):498-547. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181b7f563 · 2.63 Impact Factor