Integration of Preventing Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV and Syphilis Testing and Treatment in Antenatal Care Services in the Northern Cape and Gauteng Provinces, South Africa

and∥Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Sexually transmitted diseases (Impact Factor: 2.84). 11/2013; 40(11):846-851. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000042
Source: PubMed


South Africa recommends universal syphilis and HIV testing in pregnancy, with prompt antiretroviral therapy or penicillin treatment for women testing positive.
We used a multistage, purposeful sampling strategy to retrospectively identify clinical records from a sample (7.3%) of 32,518 women delivering from January 2005 to June 2006 at 6 public clinics in the Northern Cape and Gauteng. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression were used to assess coverage and factors related to testing and treatment of HIV and syphilis.
Of 2379 women sampled, 93% accessed antenatal care (ANC) services during pregnancy and 71% before the third pregnancy trimester. Testing during pregnancy or delivery was 74% for HIV and 84% for syphilis; testing at the first ANC visit was 41% and 71%; and infection prevalence at delivery was 14% and 5%, respectively. Of 243 women with reactive HIV tests, 104 (43%) had treatment documented (single-dose nevirapine) before delivery. Of 98 women with reactive syphilis tests, 73% had documented receipt of 1 penicillin injection and 36% had all 3 recommended injections. Multivariable analysis found women tested for syphilis were almost 4 times more likely to have had no HIV test compared with those without syphilis testing (adjusted odds ratios, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-5.5).
Integration and provision of a package of HIV and syphilis testing at the first ANC visit and decentralizing treatments of both infections to primary care settings could increase the coverage of testing and treatment services, thus enhancing the effectiveness of current programs eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis.

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Available from: Thu-Ha Dinh, Oct 15, 2015
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    • "However, studies on integrated care have primarily examined single aspects such as the acceptability of offering several tests during the same visit [13] or of dual testing [14]. Such studies evaluate the feasibility of integration at the point of service delivery but not the effectiveness of integrated services within a health system [15]. Herein, the implementation bottlenecks for effective coverage of syphilis, HIV, and anemia screening in rural Tanzania and Uganda are identified and compared utilizing a novel approach linking data from households and health facilities to estimate population coverage in stages of implementation and key informant interviews to explore underlying determinants and potential solutions to the identified bottlenecks. "
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    ABSTRACT: To identify and compare implementation bottlenecks for effective coverage of screening for syphilis, HIV, and anemia in antenatal care in rural Tanzania and Uganda; and explore the underlying determinants and perceived solutions to overcome these bottlenecks. In this multiple case study, we analyzed data collected as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP) project between November 2011 and April 2014. Indicators from household interviews (n=4415 mothers) and health facility surveys (n=122) were linked to estimate coverage in stages of implementation between which bottlenecks can be identified. Key informant interviews (n=15) were conducted to explore underlying determinants and analyzed using a framework approach. Large differences in implementation were found within and between countries. Availability and effective coverage was significantly lower for all tests in Uganda compared with Tanzania. Syphilis screening had the lowest availability and effective coverage in both countries. The main implementation bottleneck was poor availability of tests and equipment. Key informant interviews validated these findings and perceived solutions included the need for improved procurement at the central level. Our findings reinforce essential screening as a missed opportunity, caused by a lack of integration of funding and support for comprehensive antenatal care programs. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 04/2015; 384. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2015.04.017 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, test developers have created rapid point-of-care tests that can simultaneously detect multiple infections within the same specimen using a single device. The SD BIOLINE Duo HIV/Syphilis rapid point-of-care test uses a solid-phase immunochromatographic assay to detect immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, and IgA antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antigens (HIV-1 gp41, sub O, HIV-2 gp36) and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigen (17 kDa) in human serum. This study was a multisite laboratory-based evaluation of the performance of SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test using previously characterized sera in 6 countries. Laboratories in Ghana, Mexico, Laos, Togo, Kenya, and Myanmar participated in the evaluation during 2012-2013. Each site characterized sera using T pallidum particle agglutination assay or T pallidum hemagglutination assay and HIV enzyme immunoassay, Western blot, and/or HIV antibody rapid tests. Those gold standard test results were compared with SD BIOLINE Duo test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of test performance and used the exact binomial method to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody test component (n = 2336) were estimated at 99.91% (95% CI, 99.51% and 100%) and 99.67% (95% CI, 99.16% and 99.91%), respectively. For the T pallidum test component (n = 2059), the sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 99.67% (95% CI, 98.82% and 99.96%) and 99.72% (95% CI, 99.29% and 99.92%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test were consistently high across sera specimens from 6 countries around the world. Dual rapid tests should be considered for improved HIV and syphilis screening coverage.
    03/2014; 1(1):ofu015. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofu015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Point-of-care tests have the capacity to improve healthcare delivery by reducing costs and delay associated with care. A novel point-of-care immunochromatographic test for dual diagnosis of both HIV and syphilis by detecting IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies to HIV, and specific and recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens has recently been developed, but has not been evaluated in rural field settings. We evaluated the performance of the SD Bioline Syphilis/HIV Duo (Duo) assay at a healthcare center in rural Uganda. Methods A convenience sample of pregnant women attending Kinoni Health Centre IV from March to May, 2013 was enrolled. Venous blood was collected and centrifuged for plasma isolation. Samples were tested with the Duo assay and compared with the Treponema pallidum hemaglutination assay and paired HIV rapid antibody tests as the reference standards. The ease of use and time required for the Duo assay were also assessed by laboratory technicians. Results Two hundred twenty women were enrolled with a mean age of 25.00 years (SD 5.41). The sensitivity and specificity of the Duo assay were 100% (95% CI 79.0 – 100%) and 100% (95% CI 97.6 – 100.0) respectively, for syphilis, and, 100% (75.9 – 100%) and 99.5% (96.8 – 99.9%) respectively, for HIV. The duo kit was found to be faster and easier to use than the current HIV and syphilis testing techniques. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo test were excellent in a field setting in Uganda. The Duo assay should be further evaluated in alternate populations and with point-of-care specimens (e.g. whole blood from finger stick specimens), but shows promise as a tool for improved HIV and syphilis surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment in field settings.
    BMC Research Notes 10/2014; 7(1):746. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-746
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