Recurrent urolithiasis following parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism

Department of Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.
Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England (Impact Factor: 1.27). 10/2013; 95(7):523-528. DOI: 10.1308/003588413X13629960048712
Source: PubMed


The effect of parathyroidectomy on the incidence of recurrent stone formation is uncertain. We aimed to compare the biochemistry and recurrence rate of urolithiasis in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) and stone formation (SF) and non-stone formation (NSF) with idiopathic stone formers (ISF).
Patients with pHPT and SF (Group 1) were identified from a prospective database. pHPT patients and NSF (Group 2) and ISFs (Group 3) were randomly selected from respective databases to form three equal groups. Preoperative and postoperative biochemical data were analysed and recurrent urolithiasis diagnosed if present on follow-up radiology. Out-of-area patients were asked about recurrence via telephone.
From July 2002 to October 2011, 640 patients had parathyroidectomy for pHPT. Of these, 66 (10.3%) had a history of renal colic; one was lost to follow-up. Patient demographics were similar across all three groups. Three months post-parathyroidectomy, Groups 1 and 2 had significantly reduced serum calcium concentrations (p<0.01). Group 1 had lower urinary calcium excretion after parathyroidectomy (p<0.01), but estimated glomerular filtration rate did not change following surgery. During median follow-up of 4.33 years (0.25-9 years) in Groups 1 and 2 and 5.08 years (0.810-8 years) in Group 3, one patient (1.5%) in Group 1 and 16 patients (25%) in Group 3 had recurrent urolithiasis (p<0.01). No Group 2 patients developed stones.
Curative parathyroidectomy confers a low recurrence rate for urolithiasis, but does not prevent recurrence in all patients. Further research should aim to identify the risk factors for continued SF in these patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Content: Management of primary hyperparathyroidism has evolved over the past two decades, yet impaired renal function has consistently been a surgical indication. This recommendation has been based upon the historical association between primary hyperparathyroidism and renal impairment, and a review of the literature is needed to determine whether such a recommendation is warranted. Evidence acquisition and synthesis: PubMed was utilized to identify English-language articles published between January 1990 and February 2014 using keywords related to hyperparathyroidism and renal function. The keywords were "primary hyperparathyroidism," "surgery," "parathyroidectomy," "kidney," "renal," "glomerular filtration rate," and "creatinine." Of the 1926 articles obtained with this search, all articles germane to the topic that quantified the relationship between primary hyperparathyroidism and renal function were included. All references within these articles were investigated for inclusion. When helpful, data tables were constructed to summarize the results succinctly. Conclusions: A secondary elevation of PTH levels has not been consistently shown to occur at the threshold currently indicated for surgical intervention. While renal impairment is seen with more significant disease, mild asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism has not been conclusively associated with renal impairment. Furthermore, there is no evidence to suggest that surgically curing primary hyperparathyroidism via a parathyroidectomy has any impact upon renal function.
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