Panxi region in west Sichuan province is one of the most economically significant REE mineralization belts in China, and includes the large Maoniuping and Daluxiang deposits and the minor Lizhuang deposit. The REE mineralization in these deposits is spatially and temporally associated with carbonatite–syenite complexes. Large proportional fluorites and REE minerals occurring as veins intrude Cretaceous granite and Oligocene syenite in Maoniuping, and Oligocene syenite and carbonatite in Lizhuang, and Miocene syenite in Daluxiang. Fluorite is also one of main gangue minerals in the world-class Bayan Obo REE deposit. We present a comparison of the trace element and isotopic compositions of fluorites from four REE deposits in the Panxi region and Bayan Obo. The fluorites from Maoniuping and Daluxiang are characterized by variable REE patterns, with either LREE enrichment or LREE depletion relative to MREE. Typically they have a larger range in La/Ho compared to Y/Ho ratios, and pronounced positive Y anomaly relative to chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Their REE distribution patterns are controlled by fluoride-complexes and the loss of separate LREE-rich minerals. Different Y/Ho (ca. 73 vs. 108) and initial Sr isotopic (ca. 0.7061 vs. 0.7077) ratios are observed between the fluorites from Maoniuping and Daluxiang, reflecting their different source compositions. This contrasts with the fluorites from Maoniuping and Lizhuang, which have similar initial Sr isotopes, and appear to be cogenetic. However, the Lizhuang fluorite shows a consistent depletion of LREE relative to MREE, as well as lower Y/Ho ratios and higher HREE content than that in Maoniuping. In this respect the Lizhuang fluorite may have precipitated from a late-stage fluid following abundant fluorite and REE mineral deposition in Maoniuping. Carbonate, more than fluoride complexing, appears to have a stronger control on REE fractionation in the Lizhuang fluorites.The fluorites from three deposits in Panxi region show uniform initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions similar to their associated carbonatites, but differ from ore-veins found intruding wall rocks, e.g. granite in Maoniuping and syenite in Daluxiang. This is not consistent with a model for fluorite formation involving interaction of F-rich, carbonatite-exsoloved fluid with wall rocks. Instead, the fluorite in Panxi region may precipitate from a residual carbonthermal fluid, which was dominated by Ca, CO2 but also contained F, H2O and REE, and derived from the fractioned carbonatitic magma. Fluorite deposition produced a sharp drop in the activity of F−, which destabilized the REE fluoride complexes and caused deposition of REE minerals. In Bayan Obo, the fluorite typically has higher La/Ho than that in Panxi region and is characterized by a consistent LREE enrichment relative to MREE and negligible to positive Y anomalies. This is consistent with the compositional change of the hydrothermal fluids, which were infiltrated by external F-, LREE-rich fluids. The 87Sr/86Sr of Bayan Obo fluorite is relatively low radiogenic, and has a large range (0.7038–0.7065): similar characteristics to the carbonatite dykes found near the ore bodies. This supports a model for fluorite and REE mineral genesis involving the interaction of a carbonatite-derived fluid and the ore-hosted dolomitic marble.
"These associations suggest that processes other than fractionation during magma–magma separation (as outlined above) might be responsible for the anomalous middle REE enrichment observed at Pivot Creek. Middle REE enrichment is increasingly documented in evolved ferrocarbonatites or carbonatites that are interpreted to represent low temperature or secondary recrystallisation products (Moore et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2000; Suwa et al., 1975; Xu et al., 2012; Zaitsev et al., 1998). The anomalous REE profiles at Pivot Creek could arise during the late-stage hydrothermal or carbothermal stages of carbonatite evolution rather than during earlier crystal fractionation or liquid immiscibility. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferrocarbonatites from the lamprophyric Alpine Dyke Swarm, south Westland, New Zealand are composed of dolomite-calcite-albite-hematite and contain interstitial patches dominated by calcite-ancylite-barite-monazite-thorite-albite-aeschynite-analcime, interpreted as modified late-stage segregations. The dominant carbonate in the ferrocarbonatite is a ferroan dolomite that contains vermicular and blocky patches of calcite and a more Fe-rich ankerite. The calcite is interpreted as the product of exsolution or the by-product, with dolomite and hematite, of the oxidation of primary ankerite during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. Late stage ancylite-rich segregations have elevated 87Sr/86Sr compositions relative to host carbonatite suggesting they have crystallised from fluids that have equilibrated with host schist, but with the REE derived from fractionation of ferrocarbonatite. Mineral veining indicates this stage of crystallisation post-dated the ankerite to dolomite replacement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone). The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma) mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer) which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume) sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040-0.7132), Nd Nd ε( 3Nd(t)≈ -14 to +8), Pb ( 206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9-20.6) and Os (γOs ≈ -5 to +11) isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2rich fluids whereas the Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits are related to crystallization and crustal contamination of mafic or ultramafic magmas with subsequent segregation of a sulphide-rich portion. The ELIP is considered to be a mantle plume-derived LIP however the primary evidence for such a model is less convincing (e.g. uplift and geochemistry) and is far more complicated than previously suggested but is likely to be derived from a relatively short-lived, plume-like upwelling of mantle-derived magmas. The emplacement of the ELIP may have adversely affected the short-term environmental conditions and contributed to the decline in biota during the late Capitanian.
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