Article

Early Feeding and Risk of Celiac Disease in a Prospective Birth Cohort

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 10/2013; 132(5). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-1752
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES:Timing of gluten introduction has been associated with the risk of celiac disease (CD) in children, but the optimal time window is unknown. We aimed to study the effect of age of gluten introduction on the risk of CD, adjusting for continued breastfeeding.METHODS:In The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a prospective birth cohort including 107 000 children, CD was identified by questionnaires and by linkage to the Norwegian Patient Register. Gluten introduction was reported monthly from 0 to 6 months of age, and breastfeeding from 0 to 18 months.RESULTS:After exclusion of cases with insufficient information, 324 children with CD in a cohort of 82 167 were used in the analyses. Gluten was introduced before or at 4 months in 8.0%, 5 to 6 months in 45.3%, and after 6 months in 46.6%, whereas continued breastfeeding was stable at ∼78% at 6 months age. CD was diagnosed in 3.68/1000 of the infants with gluten introduction at 5 to 6 months compared with 4.15/1000 with late and 4.24/1000 with early gluten introduction. After adjustment for the child's age and gender, breastfeeding, and maternal CD, delayed gluten introduction was associated with an increased risk of CD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.65], P = .045). Breastfeeding >12 months was also associated with increased risk (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.21], P = .046).CONCLUSIONS:We found an increased risk of CD in children introduced to gluten after 6 months and a higher risk in children breastfed after 12 months age.

0 Followers
 · 
54 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commentary on: Lionetti ECastellaneta SFrancavilla Ret al.; SIGENP (Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition) Working Group on Weaning and CD Risk. Introduction of gluten, HLA status, and the risk of celiac disease in children. N Engl J Med 2014;371:1295-303. Context The presence of gluten in the diet is required for the development of coeliac disease. In genetically predisposed individuals, coeliac disease may start from the introduction of gluten in infancy until any age.1 Early exposure to gluten in the diet has been scrutinised, driven by epidemic increases observed in Sweden in the 1980s after changes mainly in the dose of gluten at introduction.2 Observational studies in a high-risk cohort and in a population-based study have indicated that the timing of gluten introduction may be …
    Evidence-Based Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/ebmed-2014-110123
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background A window of opportunity has been suggested for reducing the risk of celiac disease by introducing gluten to infants at 4 to 6 months of age. Methods We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary-intervention study involving 944 children who were positive for HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 and had at least one first-degree relative with celiac disease. From 16 to 24 weeks of age, 475 participants received 100 mg of immunologically active gluten daily, and 469 received placebo. Anti-transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were periodically measured. The primary outcome was the frequency of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease at 3 years of age. Results Celiac disease was confirmed by means of biopsies in 77 children. To avoid underestimation of the frequency of celiac disease, 3 additional children who received a diagnosis of celiac disease according to the 2012 European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition diagnostic criteria (without having undergone biopsies) were included in the analyses (80 children; median age, 2.8 years; 59% were girls). The cumulative incidence of celiac disease among patients 3 years of age was 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6 to 6.8), with similar rates in the gluten group and the placebo group (5.9% [95% CI, 3.7 to 8.1] and 4.5% [95% CI, 2.5 to 6.5], respectively; hazard ratio in the gluten group, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.91). Rates of elevated levels of anti-transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were also similar in the two study groups (7.0% [95% CI, 4.7 to 9.4] in the gluten group and 5.7% [95% CI, 3.5 to 7.9] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.73). Breast-feeding, regardless of whether it was exclusive or whether it was ongoing during gluten introduction, did not significantly influence the development of celiac disease or the effect of the intervention. Conclusions As compared with placebo, the introduction of small quantities of gluten at 16 to 24 weeks of age did not reduce the risk of celiac disease by 3 years of age in this group of high-risk children. (Funded by the European Commission and others; PreventCD Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN74582487 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 10/2014; 371(14):1304-1315. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1404172 · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether age at introduction to gluten was associated with risk for celiac disease (CD) in genetically predisposed children. TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) is a prospective birth cohort study. Newborn infants (N = 6436) screened for high-risk HLA-genotypes for CD were followed up in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Information about infant feeding was collected at clinical visits every third month. The first outcome was persistent positive for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA), the marker for CD. The second outcome was CD, defined as either a diagnosis based on intestinal biopsy results or on persistently high levels of tTGA. Swedish children were introduced to gluten earlier (median: 21.7 weeks) compared with children from Finland (median: 26.1 weeks), Germany, and the United States (both median: 30.4 weeks) (P < .0001). During a median follow-up of 5.0 years (range: 1.7-8.8 years), 773 (12%) children developed tTGA and 307 (5%) developed CD. Swedish children were at increased risk for tTGA (hazard ratio: 1.74 [95% CI: 1.47-2.06]) and CD (hazard ratio: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.34-2.24]) compared with US children, respectively (P < .0001).Gluten introduction before 17 weeks or later than 26 weeks was not associated with increased risk for tTGA or CD, adjusted for country, HLA, gender, and family history of CD, neither in the overall analysis nor on a country-level comparison. In TEDDY, the time to first introduction to gluten introduction was not an independent risk factor for developing CD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.