Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13123 East 16th Avenue, Box B251, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: .
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.12). 10/2013; 60(5):1063-1082. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2013.06.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The approach to common skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) was previously well understood. However, the recent emergence of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphyloccocus aureus as a common pathogen has changed the epidemiology of these infections and has led clinicians to alter their practice and treatment of SSTI. This article discusses the present epidemiology of SSTI and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, evidence-based approach to incision and drainage, the utility of adjuvant antibiotic therapy after abscess drainage, and current antimicrobial approach to cellulitis and nondrained SSTIs. Methods to reduce transmission and recurrence of SSTI through decolonization strategies are also discussed.

13 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in children. The medical burden of SSSIs, particularly abscesses, has increased nationwide since the emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. SSSIs represent a wide spectrum of disease severity. Prompt recognition, timely institution of appropriate therapy, and judicious antimicrobial use optimize patient outcomes. For abscesses, incision and drainage are paramount and might avoid the need for antibiotic treatment in uncomplicated cases. If indicated, empiric antimicrobial therapy should target Streptococcus pyogenes for nonpurulent SSSIs, such as uncomplicated cellulitis, and S aureus for purulent SSSIs such as abscesses.
    Pediatric Clinics of North America 04/2014; 61(2):457-478. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2013.12.004 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and are typically treated with intravenous vancomycin. Given vancomycin's time-dependent mechanism of action, it is unlikely that vancomycin administration in the emergency department (ED) prior to disposition home could be beneficial. To characterize the indications, dosing, and appropriateness of vancomycin use in patients discharged from the ED. This is a single-center retrospective observational cohort study of patients who received vancomycin in an urban, academic, tertiary care ED. The subjects were consecutive adult patients administered intravenous vancomycin in the ED and then discharged home over an 18-month period. Outcomes were measured 1) to characterize patients receiving vancomycin prior to discharge home from the ED; and 2) to identify patients that did not meet indications for appropriate use based on the 2011 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for treating MRSA infections. There were 526 patients that received vancomycin in the ED prior to discharge during the study period. In this cohort, 368 (70%) patients were diagnosed with skin and soft tissue infections. A MRSA risk factor was present in 396 (75%) patients. Prior to discharge, one dose of vancomycin was administered to 357 (68%) patients. Underdosing of vancomycin occurred in 239 (73%) patients. Vancomycin was given frequently to patients discharged home from the ED, most commonly for conditions where vancomycin was not indicated, such as skin and soft tissue infections. The majority of these patients received a vancomycin dosing strategy that is not only unlikely to lead to clinical improvement, but also has the potential to contribute adversely to the development of antibiotic resistance. Further investigation is needed into the impact of vancomycin use, the emergence of vancomycin resistance, and the role of ED-based antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 03/2015; 49(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jemermed.2015.01.001 · 0.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus infections pose a significant health burden. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus has resulted in an epidemic of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and many patients experience recurrent SSTI. As S aureus colonization is associated with subsequent infection, decolonization is recommended for patients with recurrent SSTI or in settings of ongoing transmission. S aureus infections often cluster within households, and asymptomatic carriers serve as reservoirs for transmission; therefore, a household approach to decolonization is more effective than measures performed by individuals alone. Novel strategies for the prevention of recurrent SSTI are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Infectious disease clinics of North America 09/2015; 29(3):429-64. DOI:10.1016/j.idc.2015.05.007 · 2.73 Impact Factor