Early Diagnosis of Sex in Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider by Sequence Characterized Amplified Region Marker

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences (Impact Factor: 0.4). 09/2013; 84(2). DOI: 10.1007/s40011-013-0226-2

ABSTRACT Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider is a dioecious shrub in which female plants are economically more important than the male plants, as seeds produced by the female plants store liquid wax ester that is extensively used in cosmetic industry. Sex of jojoba individuals can be determined only at flowering stage which comes after 3–4 years of seeding. Since, population of jojoba is male biased, so, to identify female plants at seedling stage, more reliable and robust male-specific sequence characterized amplified region marker was developed from male-specific inter-simple sequence repeat marker. During homology searching, no DNA sequence with significant similarity to male-specific inter-simple sequence repeat marker was found in non-redundant database of National Center for Biotechnology Information. Sequence characterized amplified region primer pair designed, based on the sequence of inter-simple sequence repeat marker, (GenBank accession no. HQ166029.1) amplified a fragment approx. 1000 bp in male plants only. This fragment was completely absent in female plants. Authentication of marker was done by using samples taken from two provinces of India.

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    ABSTRACT: Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) is a dioecious shrub that produces fruits in female plants. Its seeds stores liquid wax which is used in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and plastic industries. This species is generally propagated by seed. The sex of seedlings is not distinguishable by cytological and seed cultivation methods. This investigation was carried out to study the sex-specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in thirteen 4-year-old jojoba plants from two provinces of Iran and DNAs of those populations were extracted by CTAB method. Out of the 20 tested primers, two primers, namely F1 and F10, produced 460 and 680 bp fragments, respectively and were importantly recognized to distinguish between female and male plants, accordingly. Also, the results of the ratio difference test showed that, more efficient sex determination of jojoba seedlings is done using both F1 and F10 primers due to gene cooperation between them. The preliminary results of this study for sex determination would help the recognition of potential fruit-bearing seedlings for having high yield per hectare in horticultural systems. Furthermore, the findings would help saving time and economic resources in jojoba breeding programs.
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    ABSTRACT: Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider, a multipurpose dioecious shrub of arid zones, has emerged as a cash crop. It is being cultivated for its seeds which store liquid wax whose properties are similar to spermaceti (Sperm whale oil), a substitute for petro products and precious high-priced lubricants. Jojoba is a slow-growing desert shrub having a male biased (5:1; male:female ratio) population. Since there is no method available to determine the sex at the seedling stage, current investigations have been carried out to generate a sex-specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker in jojoba which is based on the PCR amplification of random locations in the genome of plant. Of the 72 primers tested, only one random decamer primer, OPG-5, produced a unique ∼1,400 base pairs fragment in male DNA. To validate this observation, this primer was re-tested with the individuals of male and female samples of four cultivars. The unique ∼1,400bp fragment was present in male individuals of all the four cultivars and completely absent in respective female individuals tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to ascertain the sex of jojoba plants at an early stage of development of the taxon.
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