Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Colorectal Adenomas: Black Womens Health Study
ABSTRACT Evidence for the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with colorectal neoplasms is contradictory, and African Americans have been underrepresented in the studies published to date. In a nested case-control study (1995-2009), we examined DM and insulin therapy as risk factors for colorectal adenomas in African American women enrolled in the ongoing Black Women's Health Study. From women reporting ever having undergone a gastrointestinal endoscopy, 917 cases of colorectal adenoma were compared with 2,751 controls without a colorectal polyp, matched on age and follow-up time. Cases were verified by medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses that included DM exposures and selected confounders. There were no overall associations between DM and adenoma risk or between insulin use and adenoma risk. However, DM without insulin use was inversely associated with risk of colon adenomas (odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.97) but not rectal adenomas. DM was inversely associated with adenoma risk in women older than 55 years (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.91) but not in women 55 years or younger (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.89). Future research should attempt to replicate the unexpected inverse association of DM with colon adenoma risk among older African American women.
- American journal of epidemiology 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu088 · 4.98 Impact Factor
Article: FOUR AUTHORS REPLY.American journal of epidemiology 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu084 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers and cause of cancer deaths in American women and men. Females and males share a similar lifetime cumulative risk of CRC however, substantial differences in risk factors, tumor biology, and effectiveness of cancer prevention services have been observed between them. This review distills the evidence documenting the unique variation observed between the genders relating to CRC risk factors, screening and prevention. Consistent evidence throughout the world demonstrates that women reach equivalent levels of adenomas and CRC as men but it occurs nearly a decade later in life than in their male counterparts. Women have a higher proportion of tumors which are hypermethylated, have microsatellite instability and located in the proximal colon suggesting the serrated pathway may be of greater consequence in them than in men. Other CRC risk factors such as smoking, diet and obesity have been shown to have disparate effects on women which may related to interactions between estrogen exposure, body fat distribution, and the biologic underpinnings of their tumors. There is data showing the uptake, choice, and efficacy of different CRC screening methods in women is dissimilar to that in men. The mortality benefit from FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, and protection from interval CRC by colonoscopy appears to be lower in women than men. A greater understanding of these gender idiosyncrasies will facilitate an personalized approach to CRC prevention and should ultimately lead to a reduced burden of disease.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2015; 60(3). DOI:10.1007/s10620-014-3452-4 · 2.55 Impact Factor