Impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease: Prevalence, depression, and personality

Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Denmark. Electronic address: .
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.97). 09/2013; 20(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.09.006
Source: PubMed


Dopaminergic medication administered to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is associated with impulse control disorders, such as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, and binge eating. Studies indicate a prevalence of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease of 6-16%.
To estimate the prevalence of impulsive and compulsive behaviors among Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and to explore the relation of such behavioral disorders to depression and personality.
490 patients with Parkinson's disease (303 males), identified through the National Danish Patient Registry, were evaluated with: 1) the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease; 2) the Geriatric Depression Scale; and 3) the NEO-Personality Inventory.
176 (35.9%) patients reported impulsive and compulsive behaviors sometime during Parkinson's disease (current symptoms in 73, 14.9%). Hereof, 114 (23.3%) reported multiple behavioral symptoms. Patients with behavioral symptoms were significantly younger, were younger at PD onset, had longer disease duration, displayed more motor symptoms, and received higher doses of dopaminergic medication than patients without behavioral symptoms. Furthermore, they reported significantly more depressive symptoms and scored significantly higher on neuroticism and lower on both agreeableness and conscientiousness than patients without behavioral symptoms.
A history of impulsive and compulsive behaviors are common in Danish patients with Parkinson's disease and have clinical correlates that may allow identification of patients at risk for developing these behaviors.

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    • "Impulsive buying behavior is motivated by psychological or internal states of a consumer and consumer is not concerned with its consequences (Sun & Wu, 2011). Impulsive buying behavior and compulsive buying behavior are difficult to distinguish all together based on their consequences Callesen et al.,2014. Impulsive buying behavior may further become a cause of impulse control disorder and ultimately turn into compulsive buying behavior (Kwak et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research aimed at application and validation of core self evaluation (CSE) personality traits model in consumer impulsive & compulsive buying behavior in the context of fashion shopping. Two studies (study 1 & Study 2) with different populations were devised. In study 1, a causal relationship between CSE, impulsive and compulsive buying behavior was examined. Study 2 aimed to examine the causal relationship between CSE traits (self efficacy, self esteem, neuroticism and locus of control) and impulsive & compulsive buying behavior. Questionnaire adopted from literature was modified and administered to sample consumers in Islamabad. Structural equation models using AMOS 22 was analyzed utilizing maximum likelihood method.Results illustrated that consumers scoring high on CSE, were highly impulsive and compulsive. Impulsive buying behavior proved to be a significant predictor of compulsive buying behavior. Major contributions of this research included development of a new theoretical model of impulsive and compulsive buying behavior based on personality traits. CSE traits were adopted from work place environment and tested in consumer impulsive and compulsive behavior for the first time. Significant positive relationship between self efficacy and impulsive & compulsive behavior was established. Research implications and future directions are provided in the end. Introduction Compulsive buying behavior research in marketing and consumer behavior started with the work of Faber, O' Guinn & Krych (1987). Compulsive buying is characterized by repetitive, time consuming, excessive and uncontrolled buying (Faber &O'Guinn, 1992). Numerous factors influencing consumer's compulsive buying can be categorize into two broad categories i.e. external (environmental) influences and internal (Psychological) influences (Aboujaoude, 2013). Psychological influences include personality of a consumer and various researchers considered personality traits to be of prime importance in compulsive buying behavior (Amos, Holmes & Keneson, 2014; Black, 2010) because these traits are reasonably constant over time (Mowen & Spears, 1999). A lot of personality related factors like low self esteem, high depression; high stress, high anxiety, high emotional instability and materialism were associated with compulsive buying behavior (Davenport, Houston & Griffith, 2012). The net effects of these traits have no theoretical linkages with each other. Mowen and Spears, (1999) for the first time employed a personality trait model (Five Factor Model of personality traits) to predict compulsive buying behavior whose traits had theoretical linkages. Big Five Model (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience and conscientiousness) had significant insights for consumer impulsive and compulsive buying behavior. A relatively new broad personality trait termed as core self-evaluation (CSE) is found to be a sound predictor of individual's behavior apart from traits in Big-Five personality model (Judge, Heller & Klinger, 2008). CSE (includes personality traits: locus of control, self esteem, neuroticism and self efficacy) is equipped with trait like self-efficacy that was not present in the Big Five model and possesses the ability to better describe personality in broader way. Mowen and Spears (1999) also failed to establish the structure of Big Five Model in their study on compulsive buying behavior (p. 421). So we consider it worthwhile to take up CSE from work and organizational environment (like Mowen and Spears (1999) did with Big Five model) and bring it into compulsive buying behavior. Impulsive and compulsive behaviors are categorized as irrational buying behaviors (Penman & McNeill, 2008). These irrational behaviors, especially compulsive buying behaviors are also considered negative or problematic behaviors due to their damaging consequences (LaRose, 2001). Impulsive buying is an unintentional behavior that involves prompt decision making and propensity of acquiring the product immediately (Rook & Gardner, 1993). Compulsive buying behavior has been studied through impulsive tendencies, impulsiveness,
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    • "Certain neurological disorders can cause an individual to act inappropriately and possibly cause hypersexuality as a result. Some of the most common examples are Alzheimer's Disease (sexual disinhibition due to the effects of the disease on the frontal and temporal lobes, with a prevalence of 4.3%–9.0% of patients ; Cooper et al., 2009; Callesen, Weintraub, Damholdt & Møller, 2014), Pick's Disease (impairs the regulation of socially acceptable behaviors) and Kleine-Levin Syndrome (causing hypersomnia, which can cause abnormal behavior such as hypersexuality) (Callesen et al., 2014; Cooper et al., 2009; Dhikav, Anand & Aggarwal, 2007; Gadoth, Kesler, Vainstein, Peled & Lavie, 2001; Mendez, Selwood, Mastri & Frey, 1993). In addition, certain types of medications or illicit drugs can also cause an increased sexual drive such as dopamine agonists used to treat Parkinson's disease or cocaine, GHB, and methamphetamine (Smith, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a common disorder featuring repetitive, intrusive and distressing sexual thoughts, urges and behaviors that negatively affect many aspects of an individual's life. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of CSB, cognitive aspects of the behaviors, and treatment options. Methods: We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical aspects of CSB and treatment approaches. Results: The literature review of the clinical aspects of CSB demonstrates that there is likely a substantial heterogeneity within the disorder. In addition, the treatment literature lacks sufficient evidence-based approaches to develop a clear treatment algorithm. Conclusions: Although discussed in the psychological literature for years, CSB continues to defy easy categorization within mental health. Further research needs to be completed to understand where CSB falls within the psychiatric nosology.
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    • "Behaviourally the young onset patients are quite different (Schrag et al., 2003). These different behavioural profiles inevitably call for different pharmacological management and it requires careful judgement on behalf of the neurologist to match treatment to persona (Callesen et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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