Therapy for Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia

Department of Internal Medicine, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 10/2013; 310(13):1401. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.277966
Source: PubMed
8 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quantitative coronary angiographic measurements and visual estimates of coronary lesion severity were compared prospectively before, immediately following, and 6 months following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Mean percent diameter stenosis before angioplasty was 87.9 +/- 9.9% by visual analysis and 64.6 +/- 9.2% by quantitative coronary angiography (p = 0.0001). Differences between these two techniques were also found immediately post-angioplasty (visual analysis 29.5 +/- 11.8%, quantitative coronary angiography 22.8 +/- 11.8%, p = 0.0002) and at 6 months (visual analysis 46.5 +/- 27.4%, quantitative coronary angiography 30.2 +/- 20.4%, p = 0.0001). These differences significantly affected the determination of restenosis by three definitions. (1) Lesion recurrence with greater than or equal to 50% stenosis at follow-up: 38 of 92 (41%) by visual analysis versus 20 of 92 (22%) by quantitative coronary angiography (p less than 0.01). (2) Increase of greater than or equal to 30% stenosis: 34 of 92 (37%) by visual analysis versus 20 of 92 (22%) by quantitative coronary angiography (p less than 0.01). (3) Loss of 50% of previous improvement: 31 of 92 (34%) by visual analysis versus 24 of 92 (26%) by quantitative coronary angiography (p = 0.08). In addition, determination of success or failure of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was affected by the interpretative technique, but these differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that visual estimates of lesion severity are consistently and significantly higher than quantitative measurements. Consequently, restenosis rates, using currently applied definitions, differ considerably depending on the method of analyzing lesion severity.
    American Heart Journal 02/1990; 119(1):178-84. DOI:10.1016/S0002-8703(05)80098-5 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mental stress can induce myocardial ischemia and also has been implicated in triggering cardiac events. However, pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) have not been well studied. To examine the effects of 6 weeks of escitalopram treatment vs placebo on MSIMI and other psychological stress-related biophysiological and emotional parameters. The REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment) study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease and laboratory-diagnosed MSIMI. Enrollment occurred from July 24, 2007, through August 24, 2011, at a tertiary medical center. Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive escitalopram (dose began at 5 mg/d, with titration to 20 mg/d in 3 weeks) or placebo over 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Occurrence of MSIMI, defined as development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; left ventricular ejection fraction reduction of 8% or more; and/or horizontal or down-sloping ST-segment depression of 1 mm or more in 2 or more leads, lasting for 3 or more consecutive beats, during 1 or more of 3 mental stressor tasks. Of 127 participants randomized to receive escitalopram (n = 64) or placebo (n = 63), 112 (88.2%) completed end point assessments (n = 56 in each group). At the end of 6 weeks, more patients taking escitalopram (34.2% [95% CI, 25.4%-43.0%]) had absence of MSIMI during the 3 mental stressor tasks compared with patients taking placebo (17.5% [95% CI, 10.4%-24.5%]), based on the unadjusted multiple imputation model for intention-to-treat analysis. A significant difference favoring escitalopram was observed (odds ratio, 2.62 [95% CI, 1.06-6.44]). Rates of exercise-induced ischemia were slightly lower at 6 weeks in the escitalopram group (45.8% [95% CI, 36.6%-55.0%]) than in patients receiving placebo (52.5% [95% CI, 43.3%-61.8%]), but this difference was not statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio; 1.24 [95% CI, 0.60-2.58]; P = .56). Among patients with stable coronary heart disease and baseline MSIMI, 6 weeks of escitalopram, compared with placebo, resulted in a lower rate of MSIMI. There was no statistically significant difference in exercise-induced ischemia. Replication of these results in multicenter settings and investigations of other medications for reducing MSIMI are needed. Identifier: NCT00574847.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2013; 309(20):2139-49. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.5566 · 35.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ischemia during laboratory mental stress tests has been linked to significantly higher rates of adverse cardiac events. Previous studies have not been designed to detect differences in mortality rates. To determine whether mental stress-induced ischemia predicts death, we evaluated 196 patients from the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia (PIMI) study who had documented coronary artery disease and exercise-induced ischemia. Participants underwent bicycle exercise and psychological stress testing with radionuclide imaging. Cardiac function data and psychological test results were collected. Vital status was ascertained by telephone and by querying Social Security records 3.5+/-0.4 years and 5.2+/-0.4 years later. Of the 17 participants who had died, new or worsened wall motion abnormalities during the speech test were present in 40% compared with 19% of survivors (P=0.04) and significantly predicted death (rate ratio=3.0; 95% CI, 1.04 to 8.36; P=0.04). Ejection fraction changes during the speech test were similar in patients who died and in survivors (P=0.9) and did not predict death even after adjusting for resting ejection fraction (P=0.63), which was similar in both groups (mean, 56.4 versus 59.7; P=0.24). Other indicators of ischemia during the speech test (ST-segment depression, chest pain) did not predict death, nor did psychological traits, hemodynamic responses to the speech test, or markers of the presence and severity of ischemia during daily life and exercise. In patients with coronary artery disease and exercise-induced ischemia, the presence of mental stress-induced ischemia predicts subsequent death.
    Circulation 05/2002; 105(15):1780-4. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000014491.90666.06 · 14.43 Impact Factor