ED Utilization Trends in Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Emergency department (ED) visits for sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have risen. This study evaluated how the number and severity of admissions have changed as ED visits for sports-related TBIs have increased.METHODS:A retrospective study of children aged 0 to 19 years at a level 1 trauma center was performed. Patients from 2002 to 2011 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of TBI were identified from the hospital's inpatient and outpatient trauma registries. Frequencies were used to characterize the population, χ(2) analysis was performed to determine differences between groups, and regression analysis looked at relationship between year and injury severity score or length of stay.RESULTS:Sport was responsible for injury in 3878 (15.4%) cases during the study period; 3506 (90.4%) were discharged from the hospital, and 372 (9.6%) were admitted. Seventy-three percent were male patients and 78% Caucasian; mean age was 13 ± 3.5 years. ED visits for sports-related TBIs increased 92% over the study period, yet there was no significant change (χ(2) = 9.8, df = 9, P = .37) in the percentage of children admitted. Mean injury severity score for those admitted decreased from 7.8 to 4.8 (β = -0.46; P = .006); length of stay trended downward (β = -0.05; P = .05).CONCLUSIONS:The percentage of children being admitted from the ED with sports-related TBI has not changed over the past 10 years. The severity of admitted sports-related TBI is decreasing. Additional research is needed to correlate these trends with other TBI mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric sport-related concussion (SRC) in pre-high school- versus high school-aged athletes. A stratified probability sample of US hospitals that provide emergency services in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (1997-2007) and All Injury Program (2001-2005) was used. Concussion-related ED visits were analyzed for 8- to 13- and 14- to 19-year-old patients. Population data were obtained from the US Census Bureau; sport participation data were obtained from National Sporting Goods Association. From 2001 to 2005, US children who were aged 8 to 19 years had an estimated 502 000 ED visits for concussion. The 8- to 13-year-old group accounted for approximately 35% of these visits. Approximately half of all ED visits for concussion were SRC. The 8- to 13-year-old group sustained 40% of these, which represents 58% of all concussions in this group. Approximately 25% of all SRC visits in the 8- to 13-year-old group occurred during organized team sport (OTS). During the study period, approximately 4 in 1000 children aged 8 to 13 years and 6 in 1000 children aged 14 to 19 years had an ED visit for SRC, and 1 in 1000 children aged 8 to 13 years and 3 in 1000 children aged 14 to 19 years had an ED visit for concussion sustained during OTS. From 1997 to 2007, although participation had declined, ED visits for concussions in OTS in 8- to 13-year-old children had doubled and had increased by >200% in the 14- to 19-year-old group. The number of SRCs in young athletes is noteworthy. Additional research is required.PEDIATRICS 09/2010; 126(3):e550-6. DOI:10.1542/peds.2009-3101 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) remain an important public health problem in most industrial developed and especially in developing countries. This may also result in temporary or permanent disability. The aim of this study was to examine the trends in the distribution of traumatic brain injuries by gender, age, severity of injury and outcome and describe the incidence in the injury patterns. This is a retrospective, descriptive, hospital-based study that included all cases of TBI during the period from January 2003 to December 2007. This study is a retrospective analysis of 1919 patients with traumatic brain injury attended and treated at the Accident and Emergency Department of the Hamad General Hospital and other Trauma Centers of the Hamad Medical Corporation. Details of all TBI cases were extracted from the database of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Severity of TBI was assessed by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). This study was based on 1919 patients suffering from traumatic brain injury, where 154 died and 97 (5.1%) of them died in the intensive care unit. The number of TBI cases increased remarkably in 2007 by 69.7%. However, the incidence rate was nearly stable across the years (4.2-4.9/10 000 population). Of the total TBI cases, the majority of them were non-Qataris (72.7%) and men (88.6%). There was a significant increase in number of TBI cases between 2003 and 2007 in terms of age group (p = 0.003), nationality (p = 0.004) and severity of injuries (p = 0.05). The highest peak rate of TBI cases was observed among the population over 65 years old, followed by 15-24 year olds. Falls caused most TBIs in the 1-14 years age group, road traffic accidents in the age group 15-24 years and sports and recreation in the age group 25-34 years. The present study findings revealed that traumatic brain injury is a major public health problem, especially among young adults and older people. Although there was a sharp increase found in the number of TBI cases, the incidence rate of TBI took a stable trend during the study period.Brain Injury 02/2010; 24(2):74-80. DOI:10.3109/02699050903508192 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common in the pediatric population. The symptom complex that might be expected in children after MTBI is not well documented. We sought to clarify the frequency and severity of concussive symptoms reported by children who required hospitalization for MTBI. Pediatric blunt trauma patients (age, 11-17 years) admitted for treatment of MTBI (GCS 14-15) were prospectively enrolled over a 2-year period. Consented patients were administered a 22-question Likert-based concussion symptom scale (normal, total score 0-8). The symptom scale was repeated at the time of routine follow-up trauma clinic visit. The frequency and severity of concussive symptoms were analyzed at both time-points. For the 2-year period, 116 children participated in the study including 63 who returned for clinic follow-up. The overall population had mean age of 14.1 years (median 14) and was 69.8% male. The mean symptom score (sum of Likert scores [scale 0-6] for 22 questions) was 27.9 (median, 23.5) at hospitalization and 9.2 (median, 4.0) at follow-up. An abnormal symptom score (>8) was reported in 83.6% of hospitalized patients and 38.1% at follow-up. Girls had a significantly higher mean symptom score at initial testing than boys (33.9 vs 25.3, respectively; P < .05). This difference disappeared by the time of follow-up (girls 9.2 vs boys 9.1, P = .98) The most common initial symptom was headache (71.5% of patients) and most severe (highest mean score) was fatigue (mean, 2.0; median, 2.0). At follow-up, the most common symptom was excess sleep (38.1%) and most severe symptom falling asleep (mean, 1.0; median, 0). There were no significant differences in initial scores based on reported loss of consciousness, prior concussion history, or GCS 14 vs 15. Symptoms after MTBI are quite common at the time of hospitalization. Symptom scores improve to near normal for most by outpatient follow-up. The most common symptom was headache, but the most severe was fatigue, in this hospitalized pediatric population. Thoughtful assessment and follow-up of this patient population are warranted.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 07/2009; 44(6):1223-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.02.027 · 1.31 Impact Factor