Characteristics and outcomes of injured patients presenting by private vehicle in a state trauma system
Previous studies have demonstrated lower mortality among patients transported to single urban trauma centers by private vehicle (PV) compared with Emergency Medical Services (EMS). We sought to describe the characteristics and outcomes of injured patients transported by PV in a state trauma system compared to patients transported by EMS.Methods
We performed a retrospective cohort study of state trauma registry data for patients admitted to all Pennsylvania trauma centers over 5 years (1/2003 to 12/2007). Our primary exposure of interest was prehospital mode of transport and our primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Unadjusted analyses were performed as were adjusted analyses controlling for injury severity. Data are presented as percents, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals.ResultsOf the 91 132 patients analyzed, 9.6% were transported to the emergency department by PV and 90.4% by EMS. Overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 13.3 ± 11.0 (ISS for EMS 13.7 ± 11.3, PV 9.2 ± 7.1, P < .001), and 6.6% of patients died (EMS 7.1%, PV 1.5%, P < .001). After adjusting for injury severity, patients transported by EMS were more likely to die than PV patients (OR 1.9 [95% CI 1.5-2.4]). This effect persisted in blunt, penetrating, advanced life support, and basic life support subgroups, but not in the severely injured (ISS > 15, ISS > 25) subgroups.Conclusions
Nearly 10% of injured patients arrive at trauma centers by private vehicle. Transport of injured patients by EMS was associated with higher mortality than PV transport. This may reflect the effects of prehospital time, prehospital interventions, or other confounders.
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ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage is a preventable cause of death among patients with trauma, and management often includes transfusion, either whole blood or a combination of blood components (packed red blood cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma). We used the 2009 National Trauma Data Bank data set to evaluate the relationship between transfusion type and mortality in adult patients with major trauma (n = 1745). Logistic regression analysis identified 3 independent predictors of mortality: Injury Severity Score, emergency medical system transfer time, and type of blood transfusion, whole blood or components. Transfusion of whole blood was associated with reduced mortality; thus, it may provide superior survival outcomes in this population.Journal of trauma nursing: the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses 01/2014; 21(1):22-9.
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ABSTRACT: Two decades ago, Philadelphia began allowing police transport of patients with penetrating trauma. We conduct a large, multiyear, citywide analysis of this policy. We examine the association between mode of out-of-hospital transport (police department versus emergency medical services [EMS]) and mortality among patients with penetrating trauma in Philadelphia. This is a retrospective cohort study of trauma registry data. Patients who sustained any proximal penetrating trauma and presented to any Level I or II trauma center in Philadelphia between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, were included. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models and were adjusted for injury severity with the Trauma and Injury Severity Score and for case mix with a modified Charlson index. Four thousand one hundred twenty-two subjects were identified. Overall mortality was 27.4%. In unadjusted analyses, patients transported by police were more likely to die than patients transported by ambulance (29.8% versus 26.5%; OR 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.39). In adjusted models, no significant difference was observed in overall mortality between the police department and EMS groups (odds ratio [OR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.61 to 1.01). In subgroup analysis, patients with severe injury (Injury Severity Score >15) (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90), patients with gunshot wounds (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.94), and patients with stab wounds (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45) were more likely to survive if transported by police. We found no significant overall difference in adjusted mortality between patients transported by the police department compared with EMS but found increased adjusted survival among 3 key subgroups of patients transported by police. This practice may augment traditional care.Annals of emergency medicine 12/2013; · 4.33 Impact Factor