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    ABSTRACT: Cilostazol, an antiplatelet drug that increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels in platelets via inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, has been used in chronic arterial occlusive disease. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cilostazol on the recurrence of cerebral infarction using a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial method. Patients who suffered from cerebral infarction at 1 to 6 months before the trial were enrolled between April 1992 and March 1996. Oral administration of cilostazol (100 mg twice daily) or placebo was randomly assigned to the patients and continued until February 1997. The primary endpoint was the recurrence of cerebral infarction. In total, 1,095 patients were enrolled. An analysis based on 1,052 eligible patients (526 given cilostazol and 526 given placebo) showed that the cilostazol treatment achieved a significant relative-risk reduction (41.7%; confidence interval [CI], 9.2% to 62.5%) in the recurrence of cerebral infarction as compared with the placebo treatment (P=.0150). Intention-to-treat analysis of 1,067 patients also showed a significant relative-risk reduction (42.3%; CI, 10.3% to 62.9%, P=.0127). No clinically significant adverse drug reactions of cilostazol were encountered. Long-term administration of cilostazol was effective and safe in the secondary prevention of cerebral infarction.
    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 07/2000; 9(4):147-57. DOI:10.1053/jscd.2000.7216 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines for patients with moderate- or high-risk acute coronary syndromes recommend an early invasive approach with concomitant antithrombotic therapy, including aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. We evaluated the role of thrombin-specific anticoagulation with bivalirudin in such patients. We assigned 13,819 patients with acute coronary syndromes to one of three antithrombotic regimens: unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, bivalirudin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, or bivalirudin alone. The primary end points were a composite ischemia end point (death, myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization for ischemia), major bleeding, and the net clinical outcome, defined as the combination of composite ischemia or major bleeding. Bivalirudin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, as compared with heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, was associated with noninferior 30-day rates of the composite ischemia end point (7.7% and 7.3%, respectively), major bleeding (5.3% and 5.7%), and the net clinical outcome end point (11.8% and 11.7%). Bivalirudin alone, as compared with heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, was associated with a noninferior rate of the composite ischemia end point (7.8% and 7.3%, respectively; P=0.32; relative risk, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.24) and significantly reduced rates of major bleeding (3.0% vs. 5.7%; P<0.001; relative risk, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65) and the net clinical outcome end point (10.1% vs. 11.7%; P=0.02; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97). In patients with moderate- or high-risk acute coronary syndromes who were undergoing invasive treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, bivalirudin was associated with rates of ischemia and bleeding that were similar to those with heparin. Bivalirudin alone was associated with similar rates of ischemia and significantly lower rates of bleeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00093158 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2006; 355(21):2203-16. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa062437 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prasugrel (CS-747, LY640315), a novel thienopyridine, is a potent and orally active antiplatelet agent in vivo. The aims of this double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group phase 1 study were to investigate the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel after oral administration of a loading dose (LD) and subsequent 20 days of once-daily maintenance dosing (MD), to characterize the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel metabolites with an LD/MD regimen, and to assess the safety and tolerability of prasugrel in healthy subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to prasugrel 40 mg LD/7.5 mg MD (n = 11), prasugrel 60 mg LD/15 mg MD (n = 10), or placebo LD/placebo MD (n = 11). Prasugrel 40 and 60 mg LDs provided rapid and consistent inhibition of 20 microM adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated platelet aggregation. Prasugrel 7.5 and 15 mg MDs maintained inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The pharmacokinetic data indicate that exposure to prasugrel metabolites occurs rapidly after dosing and is consistent with dose proportionality. Within the limitations of this study, the safety and tolerability results suggest that prasugrel is well tolerated when dosed as an initial LD followed by a lower daily MD for 20 days. Prasugrel LDs and MDs provide rapid and sustained inhibition of ADP-mediated platelet aggregation.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 04/2006; 47(3):377-84. DOI:10.1097/01.fjc.0000210069.47205.c0 · 2.11 Impact Factor