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Available from: Pedro Beraldo de Andrade, Aug 23, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Cilostazol, an antiplatelet drug that increases the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) levels in platelets via inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, has been used in chronic arterial occlusive disease. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cilostazol on the recurrence of cerebral infarction using a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial method. Patients who suffered from cerebral infarction at 1 to 6 months before the trial were enrolled between April 1992 and March 1996. Oral administration of cilostazol (100 mg twice daily) or placebo was randomly assigned to the patients and continued until February 1997. The primary endpoint was the recurrence of cerebral infarction. In total, 1,095 patients were enrolled. An analysis based on 1,052 eligible patients (526 given cilostazol and 526 given placebo) showed that the cilostazol treatment achieved a significant relative-risk reduction (41.7%; confidence interval [CI], 9.2% to 62.5%) in the recurrence of cerebral infarction as compared with the placebo treatment (P=.0150). Intention-to-treat analysis of 1,067 patients also showed a significant relative-risk reduction (42.3%; CI, 10.3% to 62.9%, P=.0127). No clinically significant adverse drug reactions of cilostazol were encountered. Long-term administration of cilostazol was effective and safe in the secondary prevention of cerebral infarction.
    Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 07/2000; 9(4):147-57. DOI:10.1053/jscd.2000.7216 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary bypass activates and depletes platelets, which may contribute to postoperative bleeding. In addition, activated platelets may be deposited in the coronary vasculature after ischemia and cardioplegia, which may delay recovery of cardiac function and metabolism and may contribute to early bypass graft occlusion. The antiplatelet agent dipyridamole reduces platelet activation and depletion and may decrease postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements. A prospective randomized trial was conducted in 58 patients undergoing elective coronary bypass operations to compare the effects of oral (19 patients) and intravenous (21 patients) dipyridamole to the results obtained in a control group (18 patients) who received no dipyridamole. Preoperative oral administration of dipyridamole resulted in lower plasma drug concentrations in the early postoperative period than perioperative intravenous administration (p = 0.0001 by analysis of variance). Postoperative arterial platelet counts were highest in the patients receiving intravenous dipyridamole, intermediate in those receiving oral dipyridamole, and lowest in the control group (p = 0.03 by analysis of variance). Postoperative blood loss and blood product transfusions were significantly reduced with both oral and intravenous dipyridamole (p = 0.04 by analysis of variance). Dipyridamole preserved platelets and reduced postoperative bleeding. Intravenous dipyridamole resulted in higher platelet counts than oral dipyridamole and may be required to reduce postoperative bleeding in high-risk patients.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 09/1988; 96(2):332-41. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines for patients with moderate- or high-risk acute coronary syndromes recommend an early invasive approach with concomitant antithrombotic therapy, including aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. We evaluated the role of thrombin-specific anticoagulation with bivalirudin in such patients. We assigned 13,819 patients with acute coronary syndromes to one of three antithrombotic regimens: unfractionated heparin or enoxaparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, bivalirudin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, or bivalirudin alone. The primary end points were a composite ischemia end point (death, myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization for ischemia), major bleeding, and the net clinical outcome, defined as the combination of composite ischemia or major bleeding. Bivalirudin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, as compared with heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, was associated with noninferior 30-day rates of the composite ischemia end point (7.7% and 7.3%, respectively), major bleeding (5.3% and 5.7%), and the net clinical outcome end point (11.8% and 11.7%). Bivalirudin alone, as compared with heparin plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, was associated with a noninferior rate of the composite ischemia end point (7.8% and 7.3%, respectively; P=0.32; relative risk, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.24) and significantly reduced rates of major bleeding (3.0% vs. 5.7%; P<0.001; relative risk, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65) and the net clinical outcome end point (10.1% vs. 11.7%; P=0.02; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97). In patients with moderate- or high-risk acute coronary syndromes who were undergoing invasive treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, bivalirudin was associated with rates of ischemia and bleeding that were similar to those with heparin. Bivalirudin alone was associated with similar rates of ischemia and significantly lower rates of bleeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00093158 [ClinicalTrials.gov].).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2006; 355(21):2203-16. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa062437 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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