Assessing parameter variability in a photosynthesis model within and between plant functional types using global Fluxnet eddy covariance data

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (Impact Factor: 3.76). 01/2011; 151(1):22-38. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.08.013
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The vegetation component in climate models has advanced since the late 1960s from a uniform prescription of surface parameters to plant functional types (PFTs). PFTs are used in global land-surface models to provide parameter values for every model grid cell. With a simple photosynthesis model we derive parameters for all site years within the Fluxnet eddy covariance data set. We compare the model parameters within and between PFTs and statistically group the sites. Fluxnet data is used to validate the photosynthesis model parameter variation within a PFT classification. Our major result is that model parameters appear more variable than assumed in PFTs. Simulated fluxes are of higher quality when model parameters of individual sites or site years are used. A simplification with less variation in model parameters results in poorer simulations. This indicates that a PFT classification introduces uncertainty in the variation of the photosynthesis and transpiration fluxes. Statistically derived groups of sites with comparable model parameters do not share common vegetation types or climates. A simple PFT classification does not reflect the real photosynthesis and transpiration variation. Although site year parameters give the best predictions, the parameters are generally too specific to be used in a global study. The site year parameters can be further used to explore the possibilities of alternative classification schemes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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Available from: Han (A.J.) Dolman, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "Defining the plant functional type is not sufficient to describe and predict the interaction between forests and the atmosphere (Groenendijk et al., 2011). Species and size specific traits (Law, 2014), including forest structure (Pretzsch, 2014), as well as management activities (Luyssaert et al., 2014) need to be represented in reliable and transferable prediction schemes as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: Net atmospheric carbon dioxide exchange, total evapotranspiration and net primary production of two neighbouring beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in central Germany differing in site management were measured using the eddy covariance technique and biometric methods. The unmanaged site was an old-growth forest with admixtures of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) trees whereas the managed site was a regularly thinned, even-aged (about 130 years old), pure beech stand. Average carbon fluxes measured over seven years did not differ significantly between the two forests. Evapotranspiration was slightly higher (and consequently water use efficiency lower) at the unmanaged site. The maximum rates as well as the interannual variability of both net ecosystem exchange and net primary production were considerably larger at the managed, even-aged stand. The lowest annual carbon sequestration rates were observed in years with high fruit production in beech combined with cold and dry spells during leaf development which affected the carbon balance of the managed forest more than that of the unmanaged forest. In contrast, an extraordinarily dry period in late summer 2003 caused a stronger reduction in net carbon uptake in the old-growth forest which can probably be attributed to the contribution of ash to the ecosystem fluxes. Ash has a different phenology which made it more susceptible to the late summer drought. The relative importance of tree and structural (age, size) diversity, leaf area index and regenerative growth as well as the temporal frame and extent of single weather extremes for the forest-atmosphere exchange is discussed and it is concluded that site management and forest structure needs to be included in soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer models as it can often override effects of land use or plant functional type.
    Forest Ecology and Management 06/2015; 355. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.034 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    • "In parallel, two independent efforts simultaneously used data constraints from several sites to assess the degree of improvement of the simulated fluxes depending on the " generic criterion " used for the optimized parameters (Groenendijk et al., 2011; Kuppel et al., 2012). The study of Groenendijk et al. (2011), conducted at over a hundred locations across several PFTs, found that the cross-site parameter variability after optimization explained the poorer performances of grouping sites by PFT, while no such discrepancy appeared in Kuppel et al. (2012), whose study was however limited to temperate deciduous broadleaf forests. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study uses a variational data assimilation framework to simultaneously constrain a global ecosystem model with eddy covariance measurements of daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and latent heat (LE) fluxes from a large number of sites grouped in seven plant functional types (PFTs). It is an attempt to bridge the gap between the numerous site-specific parameter optimization works found in the literature and the generic parameterization used by most land surface models within each PFT. The present multisite approach allows deriving PFT-generic sets of optimized parameters enhancing the agreement between measured and simulated fluxes at most of the sites considered, with performances often comparable to those of the corresponding site-specific optimizations. Besides reducing the PFT-averaged model–data root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and the associated daily output uncertainty, the optimization improves the simulated CO2 balance at tropical and temperate forests sites. The major site-level NEE adjustments at the seasonal scale are reduced amplitude in C3 grasslands and boreal forests, increased seasonality in temperate evergreen forests, and better model–data phasing in temperate deciduous broadleaf forests. Conversely, the poorer performances in tropical evergreen broadleaf forests points to deficiencies regarding the modelling of phenology and soil water stress for this PFT. An evaluation with data-oriented estimates of photosynthesis (GPP – gross primary productivity) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) rates indicates distinctively improved simulations of both gross fluxes. The multisite parameter sets are then tested against CO2 concentrations measured at 53 locations around the globe, showing significant adjustments of the modelled seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentration, whose relevance seems PFT-dependent, along with an improved interannual variability. Lastly, a globalscale evaluation with remote sensing NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) measurements indicates an improvement of the simulated seasonal variations of the foliar cover for all considered PFTs.
    Geoscientific Model Development 11/2014; 7(6):2581–2597. DOI:10.5194/gmd-7-2581-2014 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    • "This model, originally formulated by Farquhar et al. (1980) (here termed the FvCB model) allows for inferences to be made about biochemical limitations to leaf and canopy functioning, overlain by environmental constraints (Long & Bernacchi 2003). The original FvCB model (Farquhar et al. 1980) and its subsequent modifications (Sharkey 1985; von Caemmerer 2000; Sharkey et al. 2007) successfully predicts photosynthesis under a very wide range of conditions and has been applied to scales ranging from the chloroplast (von Caemmerer 2013) to forest canopies (Groenendijk et al. 2011) and biomes (Kattge et al. 2009; Bonan et al. 2011). A unique element of the FvCB model is the ability to estimate photorespiratory CO2 efflux concurrent with photosynthetic CO2 influx as component processes contributing to the net CO2 assimilation rate of leaves (Sage & Sharkey 1987; Busch 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leaf photosynthetic CO2 responses can provide insight into how major nutrients such as phosphorus (P) constrain leaf CO2 -assimilation rates (Anet ). However, triose-phosphate limitations are rarely employed in the classic photosynthesis model and it is uncertain to what extent these limitations occur in field situations. In contrast to predictions from biochemical theory of photosynthesis, we found consistent evidence in the field of lower Anet in high [CO2 ] and low [O2 ] than at ambient [O2 ]. For ten species of trees and shrubs across a range of soil P availability in Australia, none of them showed a positive response of Anet at saturating [CO2 ] (i.e. Amax ) to 2 kPa O2 . Three species showed >20% reductions in Amax in low [O2 ], a phenomenon explained by orthophosphate (Pi ) savings during photorespiration. These species, with largest photosynthetic capacity and Pi > 2 mmol P m(-2) , rely the most on additional Pi made available from photorespiration rather than species growing in P-impoverished soils. The results suggest that rarely-used adjustments to a biochemical photosynthesis model are useful for predicting Amax , and give insight into the biochemical limitations of photosynthesis rates at a range of leaf P concentrations. Phosphate limitations to photosynthetic capacity are likely more common in the field than previously considered.
    Plant Cell and Environment 10/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1111/pce.12468 · 6.96 Impact Factor
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