Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction: Cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Rosie Hospital, Cambridge, UK
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (Impact Factor: 3.85). 10/2013; 42(4):400-8. DOI: 10.1002/uog.13190
Source: PubMed


Few data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe perinatal morbidity and mortality following early-onset fetal growth restriction based on time of antenatal diagnosis and delivery.
We report cohort outcomes for a prospective multicenter randomized management study of fetal growth restriction (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)) performed in 20 European perinatal centers between 2005 and 2010. Women with a singleton fetus at 26-32 weeks of gestation, with abdominal circumference < 10(th) percentile and umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index > 95(th) percentile, were recruited. The main outcome measure was a composite of fetal or neonatal death or severe morbidity: survival to discharge with severe brain injury, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, proven neonatal sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis.
Five-hundred and three of 542 eligible women formed the study group. Mean ± SD gestational age at diagnosis was 29 ± 1.6 weeks and mean ± SD estimated fetal weight was 881 ± 217 g; 12 (2.4%) babies died in utero. Gestational age at delivery was 30.7 ± 2.3 weeks, and birth weight was 1013 ± 321 g. Overall, 81% of deliveries were indicated by fetal condition and 97% were by Cesarean section. Of 491 liveborn babies, outcomes were available for 490 amongst whom there were 27 (5.5%) deaths and 118 (24%) babies suffered severe morbidity. These babies were smaller at birth (867 ± 251 g) and born earlier (29.6 ± 2.0 weeks). Death and severe morbidity were significantly related to gestational age, both at study entry and delivery and also with the presence of maternal hypertensive morbidity. The median time to delivery was 13 days for women without hypertension, 8 days for those with gestational hypertension, 4 days for pre-eclampsia and 3 days for HELLP syndrome.
Fetal outcome in this study was better than expected from contemporary reports: perinatal death was uncommon (8%) and 70% survived without severe neonatal morbidity. The intervals to delivery, death and severe morbidity were related to the presence and severity of maternal hypertensive conditions. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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Available from: Aleid van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Oct 02, 2015
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    • "In our study, 98% of women who delivered before the 34th week of gestation had a cesarean section. This value was similar to the percentile reported in the TRUFFLE study [46]. Fetal pH at birth and the Apgar score were both in the range of normality (Table 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim of the study: Analyzing velocimetric (umbilical artery, UA; ductus venosus, DV; middle cerebral artery, MCA) and computerized cardiotocographic (cCTG) (fetal heart rate, FHR; short term variability, STV; approximate entropy, ApEn) parameters in intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR, in order to detect early signs of fetal compromise. POPULATION STUDY: 375 pregnant women assisted from the 28th week of amenorrhea to delivery and monitored through cCTG and Doppler ultrasound investigation. The patients were divided into three groups according to the age of gestation at the time of delivery, before the 34th week, from 34th to 37th week, and after the 37th week. Data were analyzed in relation to the days before delivery and according to the physiology or pathology of velocimetry. Statistical analysis was performed through the t-test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation test (P < 0.05). Our results evidenced an earlier alteration of UA, DV, and MCA. The analysis between cCTG and velocimetric parameters (the last distinguished into physiological and pathological values) suggests a possible relation between cCTG alterations and Doppler ones. The present study emphasizes the need for an antenatal testing in IUGR fetuses using multiple surveillance modalities to enhance prediction of neonatal outcome.
    Journal of pregnancy 12/2014; 2014:620976. DOI:10.1155/2014/620976
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    • "Dans une série prospective multicentrique de 604 foetus RCIU de moins de 33 SA, Baschat et al. retrouvent des taux de mortalité de 8,6 % chez les foetus nés à 31 SA et de 2,6 % pour ceux nés à 32 SA [8]. Dans l'analyse de la cohorte TRUFFLE, dans laquelle tous les foetus ont été inclus sur l'existence d'un RCIU au moins associé à des anomalies des Doppler ombilicaux, la mortalité néonatale est de 3 % à 30—31 SA et devient nulle à 32—33 SA (n = 103) ainsi qu'à 34 SA et plus (n = 44), hors malformations congénitales [9]. Ces chiffres semblent démontrer qu'en dehors des situations où une extraction a été décidée en raison d'anomalies du Doppler veineux ou du RCF, le risque périnatal est modéré même en cas d'altérations des flux ombilicaux (augmentation de l'index de pulsatilité, onde diastolique nulle ou reverse). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to review available data regarding the management of delivery in intra uterine growth retarded fetuses and try to get recommendations for clinical obstetrical practice. Bibliographic research performed by consulting PubMed database and recommendations from scientific societies with the following words: small for gestational age, intra-uterine growth restriction, fetal growth restriction, very low birth weight infants, as well as mode of delivery, induction of labor, cesarean section and operative delivery. The diagnosis of severe IUGR justifies the orientation of the patient to a referral centre with all necessary resources for very low birth weight or premature infants Administration of corticosteroids for fetal maturation (before 34 WG) and a possible neuroprotective treatment by with magnesium sulphate (before 32-33 WG) should be discussed. Although elective caesarean section is common, there is no current evidence supporting the use of systematic cesarean section, especially when the woman is in labor. Induction of labor, even with unfavorable cervix is possible under continuous FHR monitoring, in favorable obstetric situations and in the absence of severe fetal hemodynamic disturbances. Instrumental delivery and routine episiotomy are not recommended. For caesarean section under spinal anesthesia, an adequate anesthetic management must ensure the maintenance of basal blood pressure. Compared with appropriate for gestational age fetus, IUGR fetus is at increased risk of metabolic acidosis or perinatal asphyxia during delivery.
    Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 11/2013; 42(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jgyn.2013.09.019 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pathological condition that refers to a fetus that fails to reach his/her genetically predetermined growth potential. By epigenetic effects, substrate and energy deprivation in utero modify fetal metabolism with possible life-long impacts. Management of FGR still represents one of the main challenges for the obstetricians, both for the complexities of management of severe early FGR and for the diagnostic difficulties in late and term FGR. Late onset and term FGR define an intrauterine trajectory of growth that falls below its potential late in gestation, after 34 and 37 weeks of gestation, respectively. Ultrasound biometry examination is crucial for an accurate diagnosis of FGR. Pregnancies at risk of FGR should be considered for longitudinal ultrasound monitoring beyond the routine ultrasound screening at 20 weeks of gestation. Functional assessment of placental and fetal circulation by Doppler velocimetry and blood flow volume, together with computerized assessment of fetal heart rate variability, are key examinations in early and late FGR to assess severity of the disease and monitor fetal wellbeing. Appropriate timing of delivery in early FGR might change the outcome, and appropriate monitoring in late and term FGR might avoid unnecessary interventions.
    06/2013; 2(2). DOI:10.1007/s13669-013-0043-x
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