Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in the community: A case-control study in patients in general practice, Denmark, 2009-2011

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 09/2013; 142(07):1-12. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268813002380
Source: PubMed


SUMMARY To identify risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Danish patients consulting general practice with gastrointestinal symptoms, a prospective matched case-control study was performed; cases (N = 259) had positive cultures for toxigenic C. difficile and controls (N = 455) negative cultures. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression. In patients aged ⩾2 years (138 cases), hospitalization [odds ratio (OR) 8·4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·1-23], consumption of beef (OR 5·5, 95% CI 2·0-15), phenoxymethylpenicillin (OR 15, 95% CI 2·7-82), dicloxacillin (OR 27, 95% CI 3·6-211), and extended spectrum penicillins (OR 9·2, 95% CI 1·9-45) were associated with CDI. In patients aged <2 years none of these were associated with CDI, but in a subgroup analysis contact with animals was associated with CDI (OR 8·1, 95% CI 1·0-64). This study emphasizes narrow-spectrum penicillins, and suggests beef consumption, as risk factors for CDI in adults, and indicates a different epidemiology of CDI in infants.

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