Alcohol expectancies, defined as a person's beliefs about the effects of drinking, can influence alcohol consumption and help predict problem drinking in college students. However, there are concerns that current expectancy measures do not adequately capture mandated student expectations about alcohol use. This study examined the correspondence of 412 self-generated expectancies from mandated students (n = 64) to items on the Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol (B-CEOA; Ham, Stewart, Norton, & Hope, 2005). Self-generated expectancies were reviewed by raters who attempted to match each expectancy with a single B-CEOA item based on the qualitative essence of each statement. Most mandated student expectancies were not represented by the B-CEOA. All expectancies were then classified into 6 categories based on themes and categories from the alcohol expectancy literature. Mandated student expectancies emphasized the physiological aspects of drinking, whereas the B-CEOA assesses expectancies about intrapersonal factors. The findings suggest the B-CEOA may exclude alcohol expectancies that are important and relevant to this population. Self-generated alcohol expectancies from the target population should be considered when developing or administering expectancy questionnaires.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs.
Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-min brief advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed 6 weeks after receiving the brief advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60- to 90-min brief motivational intervention (n = 211), or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2.
Results indicated that the participants who received a brief motivational intervention showed a significantly reduced number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low-risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention.
Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 08/2012; 80(6). DOI:10.1037/a0029902 · 4.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has shown that drinking expectancies are associated with alcohol use among college students; however, the bulk of these studies have focused exclusively on researcher-labeled "positive" or "negative" expectancies rather than on the student's valuation (i.e., rating of desirability) of these expectancies. The present study examined the utility of expectancies and valuations in predicting hazardous alcohol use in a sample of 330 female college students (mean age = 20.0; 18-25). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that negative expectancies and favorable valuations of negative and positive expectancies were predictive of elevated hazardous use (controlling for age, athletic membership, and peer use). Expectancy valuations accounted for additional variance in the model beyond that of expectancies. The present findings shed light on the utility of expectancies and valuations of expectancies in predicting hazardous alcohol use among female college students. Future research directions and potential implications for prevention efforts are discussed.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 02/2006; 32(4):599-605. DOI:10.1080/00952990600920573 · 1.78 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.