Prolyl oligopeptidase colocalizes with α-synuclein, β-amyloid, tau protein and astroglia in the post-mortem brain samples with Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases
ABSTRACT Prolyl oligopeptidase (EC 18.104.22.168, PREP) is a serine protease that hydrolyzes proline-containing peptides shorter than 30-mer but it has also nonhydrolytic functions. PREP has been shown to accelerate aggregation of wild-type α-synuclein (α-syn) under cell-free conditions, and PREP inhibitors can block this aggregation both in vitro and in vivo. α-syn is the main component of Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. To clarify the possible interaction of PREP with other markers of neurodegenerative diseases, we studied colocalizations of PREP and (1) α-syn, (2) β-amyloid, (3) tau protein and (4) astroglial and microglial cells in human post-mortem brain samples from PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and in healthy control brain samples. In the substantia nigra of PD brains, an intense colocalization with PREP and α-syn was evident. PREP colocalized also with β-amyloid plaques in AD brains and with tau protein in AD and in healthy brains. PREP was also found in astroglial cells in PD, AD and control brains, but not in the microglia. Our findings are the first ones to demonstrate colocalization of PREP and pathological proteins in the human brain and support the view that, at least in spatial terms, PREP could be associated with pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) may be associated with neuromodulation and development of neurodegenerative diseases and it was recently shown to participate in the inflammatory cascade along with matrix metalloproteinases. Radiotracers, which can be used for non-invasive imaging, are needed for investigating the role of POP in normal physiology and in pathophysiological conditions in vivo. We synthesized two novel POP-specific (123)I-radiolabeled 4-phenylbutanoyl-l-prolyl-pyrrolidines of which 4-(4-[(123)I]iodophenyl)butanoyl-l-prolyl-2(S)-cyanopyrrolidine ([(123)I]2f, Ki = 4.2 nM) was selected. The selected compound has an electrophilic cyano group that is known to increase the dissociation time of POP inhibitors. [(123)I]2f was synthesized in high radiochemical yield and purity (87 ± 4%, >99%, respectively) and with a specific activity of 456 ± 98 GBq/μmol. [(123)I]2f was evaluated in healthy mice (C57Bl/6JRccHsd) by ex vivo biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging. Pretreatment with the known inhibitor 4-phenylbutanoyl-l-prolyl-(2S)-cyanopyrrolidine (KYP-2047, 2d, Ki = 0.023 nM) showed that binding of [(123)I]2f was POP specific. In addition, [(123)I]2f was evaluated in models of neuroinflammation and acute localized inflammation. A minor increase in binding of [(123)I]2f was observed in the inflamed region in the acute localized inflammation model. Similar increase in binding was not observed in the neuroinflammation model.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2014; 79C:436-445. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 3-N-butylphthalide is an effective drug for acute ischemic stroke. However, its effects on chronic cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal injury remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study ligated bilateral carotid arteries in 15-month-old rats to simulate chronic cerebral ischemia in aged humans. Aged rats were then intragastrically administered 3-n-butylphthalide. 3-N-butylphthalide administration improved the neuronal morphology in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats with chronic cerebral ischemia, increased choline acetyltransferase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde and amyloid beta levels, and greatly improved cognitive function. These findings suggest that 3-n-butylphthalide alleviates oxidative stress caused by chronic cerebral ischemia, improves cholinergic function, and inhibits amyloid beta accumulation, thereby improving cerebral neuronal injury and cognitive deficits.Neural Regeneration Research 04/2014; 9(7):719-26. · 0.23 Impact Factor
- Neuroscience 09/2013; 248C:344. · 3.33 Impact Factor